Essay on Bsn3A1 1011

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Molecules 2010, 15, 6008-6018; doi: 10.3390/molecules15096008
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molecules
ISSN 1420-3049 www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules Article

Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality
Mohammad Abu Basma Rajeh 1, Zakaria Zuraini 1, Sreenivasan Sasidharan 2, Lachimanan Yoga Latha 2 and Santhanam Amutha 2,3,*
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School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia; E-Mail: zuraini@usm.my (Z.Z) Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia; E-Mail: srisasidharan@yahoo.com (S.S) School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj
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coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL), followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL) and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL). All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf

Molecules 2010, 15 extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and loss of function. Time-kill assay of C. albicans indicated a primarily fungicidal effect at 1- and 2-fold MIC. E. hirta extracts had LC50 values of 0.71, 0.66, 0.41 and 0.03 mg/mL for stems, leaves, roots and flowers, respectively against Artemia salina. Hence, these plants can be used to discover new bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals. Keywords: antimicrobial; Artemia salina napulii Euphoribia hirta; MIC; SEM; time-kill assay;

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1. Introduction Despite the huge number of antimicrobial agents for various purposes that already exist, the search for new drugs is a continuous task since the target microorganisms often develop new genetic variants which subsequently become resistant to available antimicrobial agents and the effective lifespan of any antibiotic is thus limited. The world’s attention is now increasingly directed towards plant sources for developing

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