Bronfenbrenner Theory

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Using systems theory this chapter will evaluate the usefulness of within person characteristics, such as adaptive coping and external factors external, which include; family support, neighbourhood networks, health provision, and government financial support and other factors that promote individual resilience. There are many variants of the systems theory, this paper will utilise the theory outlined by Bronfenbrenner, (1979) called the social ecological theory to take perspective on resilience. This view looks at the dimensions and resources in an individual and their larger social environment, as well as the interactions between them (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). It assumes that systems are a foundation of organisation where the properties of the …show more content…
Both protective factors and risk factors can be placed on the ecosystem for example family falls under the microsystem. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model (1979) provides a framework for analysing the interrelated settings and relationships involved in the psychosocial sphere of individuals. His theory defines key developmental contexts in terms of the microsystems, which is the first layer of an individual’s social ecology. The microsystem, involves interactions between the individual and the immediate setting, such as the school or home environment where primary relationships are established. The second layer, mesosystem, includes the interaction of two or more settings of relevance to the developing person between the individual’s family and school settings, or among the family system and the individual’s extended social network. Thirdly, the exosystem is an extension of the mesosystem and it includes societal structures, both formal and informal. This may include government structures, major societal institutions, both economic and cultural, as well as informal concepts like the neighbourhood. Fourth, the exosystem relates indirectly to the individual. Lastly, the macrosystem encompasses the larger cultural …show more content…
This proposition posits that the form, power, content, and direction of the proximal processes effecting development vary systematically as a joint function of the biopsychological characteristics of the developing person, of the environment, both immediate and more remote, in which the processes are taking place, and the nature of the developmental outcomes under consideration (Bronfenbrenner, 1995). This means that different charecteristics are at play to determine the form, power and content as well as the direction of the processes. These charecteristics may include personal charecteristics such as age and gender, emotional resources, intelligence and other skills. Other charecteristics include the context in which people develop in. Bronfenbrenner and Morris (1998) recognized the role that personal characteristics of individuals play in interactions. Some of the characteristics that can significantly influence proximal processes that he mentioned include age and gender, emotional resources, intelligence and other skills. He notes that even when individuals have equivalent access to resources, their developmental courses may differ as a function of characteristics such as the determination to succeed and persistence in the face of

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