Endocrine System Physiology
O B J E C T I V E S 1. To define the following terms: metabolism, hormone replacement therapy, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and glucose standard curve. 2. To explain the role of thyroxine in maintaining an animal’s metabolic rate. 3. To explain the effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone on an animal’s metabolic rate. 4. To understand how estrogen affects bone density. 5. To explain how hormone replacement therapy works. 6. To explain how fasting plasma glucose is used to diagnose diabetes. 7. To understand how levels of cortisol and ACTH can be used to diagnose endocrine diseases.
he endocrine system exerts many complex and interrelated effects on the
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You will see a jar-shaped chamber to the left, connected to a respirometer-manometer apparatus (consisting of a U-shaped tube, a syringe, and associated tubing). You will be placing animals—in this case, rats—in the chamber in order to gather information about how thyroxine and TSH affect their metabolic rates. Note that the chamber also includes a weight scale, and under the timer is a weight display. Next to the chamber is a timer for setting and timing the length of a given experiment. Two tubes are connected to the top of the chamber. The left tube has a clamp on it that can be opened or closed. Leaving the clamp open allows outside air into the chamber; closing the clamp creates a closed, airtight system. The other tube leads to a T-connector. One branch of the T leads to a fluid-containing U-shaped tube, called a manometer. As an animal uses up the air in the closed system, this fluid will rise in the left side of the U-shaped tube and fall in the right. The other branch of the T-connector leads to a syringe filled with air. Using the syringe to inject air into the tube, you will measure the amount of air that is needed to return the fluid columns to their original levels. This measurement will be equal to the amount of oxygen used by the animal during the elapsed time of the experiment. Soda lime, found at the bottom of the chamber, absorbs the carbon dioxide given off by the animal so that the amount of oxygen used can easily be measured. The amount of