Blood Grouping

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There is a variety of blood groups and antigens present in different human bodies, which depend on either polymorphism or inheritance.
Blood grouping has a clinical significance, for example; we need blood grouping in cases of transfusion to avoid incompatibility, which often leads to blood clumping and agglutination then eventually death of patients, not only that but they are also important in pregnancies in cases of maternal fetal incompatibility. Each blood type has its own advantage like its resistance to infectious diseases.
The human erythrocytes are distinguished only by the blood grouping, and the most important is the ABO type.

An ABO gene determines the blood type by encoding an enzyme glycosyltransferase, which modifies the carbohydrate (oligosaccharide) content of the red blood cell antigens. This gene is present on the long arm of chromosome number 9.
…show more content…
i,
2. IA
3. IB.
IA, and IB alleles are both dominant while ii allele is recessive. It is important to understand that the IA allele gives type A, IB allele gives type B, and i allele gives type O.
IAIB have both phenotypes, because A and B express a codominance, which means that type A and B parents can have an AB child. Parents with type A and type B can also have a type O child if they are heterozygous which means they have the IBi, IAi alleles.
An H/O antigen is generated in all humans and it consists a of a specific carbohydrate group that is added to proteins. The ABO locus codes for the galactosyltransferase enzyme, which adds the carbohydrate to the
H antigen and modify it to produce the A and B antigens,

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