Birds Case Study

744 Words 3 Pages
Birds are a group of animal which consist of many species, all of which play various roles in several ecological niches. Birds are considered ‘biologically successful’ due in fact to the number of species present. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 species of birds, which is almost double the amount of species of mammals or amphibians. The differences which separate birds from mammals and make them more successful are the presence of large yolked eggs, which support the offspring until birth, and the absence of lactation which allows for greater energy usage and efficiency. Birds have developed these adaptations over the course of thousands of years. Additionally, birds are considered ‘biologically successful’ due to the fact that they …show more content…
The shape and design of bird wings allow for various types of flight. The wings are not flat, but rather concave and convex, essentially forming a shape which is curved to the top. When air passes over this shaped wing, it results is lift. This is as a result of the air which passes over the wing having a greater distance to travel, therefore decreasing the pressure exerted. This pressure is less than that of below the wing, and this causes the wing to effectively be sucked upwards. The opposite occurs on the underside of the wing, effectively resulting in the wing being pushed upwards. As such, the wing is being pulled from above, and pushed from below, resulting in lift. With the different designs of wings, the effect pressure has differed. Additionally, as air leaves the wing, a drag is caused. This is combated by the various types of wing tips, and the presence of wing slots. Birds exhibit different types of flight, such as non-flapping flight, flapping flight, and soaring flight. (See Diagram 1 and Diagram …show more content…
These include body shape, presence of feathers, structure of the skeleton, structure of the limbs, make-up of the respiratory system, and high metabolism. Birds have small, light, and condensed body forms when compared to other animals. Their anatomical mapping of their organs and muscles, show that these are located nearest to the center of gravity, which provides better balance during flight. Also, the presence and scheme of their feathers, which are contour, allow for the body to be covered tightly. This makes it streamline and somewhat reduces the effect experienced by drag. Primary feathers are on the wings help in flight and also provide wing shape, while Down feathers are soft and act as insulation. Tail feathers stretch sideways so that tail can be used by the bird to turn and

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