# Bird Swarm Algorithm Analysis

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BIRD SWARM ALGORITHM: BSA is a new meta-heuristic swarm intelligence algorithm proposed by Xian-Bing Meng [35] , inspired by social behavior and interaction of birds. Different birds gather food in different ways. Foraging is the searching for food resources or gathering food either for immediate consumption or future storage. Birds forage in flocks because they gather more information in flocks than their own intelligence. Group foraging boost-up the chances of detecting predators. While foraging some birds keep vigilance and keep their eye on predation threat. Therefore birds would randomly choose between foraging and keeping vigilance. Birds have some kind of social interaction by which they communicate on detecting the predators, …show more content…
a1 and a2 are two positive constants in [0, 2],
〖pfit〗_i, denotes the ith bird’s best fitness value and Sumfit represents the sum of the swarm’s best fitness value. E, which is used to avoid zero-division error, is the smallest constant in the computer. 〖mean〗_j, denotes the jth element of the average position of the whole swarm.
Flight behaviour (exploration and exploitation):
Birds after foraging on their previous site would try to move to a different site in search of more food and also to save themselves from the predator’s attack. The two flight groups are producers and scroungers in which producers try to search for food and scroungers are the group of members who depends on the food found by the producers. The behaviours of the producers and scroungers can be described mathematically as follows, respectively:
〖 x〗_(i,j)^(t+1)=x_(i,j)^t+randn(0,1)*x_(i,j)^t (10)
〖 x〗_(i,j)^(t+1)=x_(i,j)^t+(x_(k,j)^t-x_(i,j)^t )*FL*rand(0,1) (11) where randn(0,1) denotes Gaussian distributed random number with mean 0 and standard deviation 1, kϵ[1,2,3……N], k≠i , FL(FL∈[0,2]), means that the scrounger would follow the producer to search for
Step 7: The termination is done when a maximum number of iteration met.
IMPLEMENTATION OF BSA TO ELD PROBLEM:
In this section, the BSA algorithm is implemented to solve the different types of ELD problems. The various steps of solving the ELD problem using BSA are described below:
Step1: Initialization of population N, each comprising Ng number of generating units and define the related parameters a1, a2, FQ, c1, c2.
Step2: Generation values of each generating units is randomly initialized within their lower and upper operating limits except the last unit. The generation value of last unit is evaluated using equation (3). The infeasible solutions that violated the constraints are reinitialized. The position matrix is created as follow:
P = [█(█(■(P_1^1, P_2^1,&⋯&P_Ng^1@P_1^2, P_2^2,&…&P_Ng^2@⋮ ⋮& ⋯&⋮)@⋮ ⋮ … ⋮@⋮ ⋮ … ⋮)@P_1^N, P_2^N, … P_Ng^N )]
Step3: Calculate N individual fitness value of all the birds using objective function from the equations (1-2) and find the best solution.
Step4: Evaluate foraging, vigilance and flight behavior of birds using equations 8, 9, 10 and 11 and new positions are generated using the four searching

• ## Darwin And Wallace And The Theory Of Natural Selection

All in all, this example of the birds combine all the four postulates and describe the importance of survival and the importance of reproduction for natural selection. In Wallace’s paper, he describes an observation of predation, antelopes and leg sizes (page 5). From Wallace’s assertion from that observation, a reader can extrapolate and integrate the four postulates. Antelopes with longer legs are more apt to survive by out running/escaping predators (3rd postulate).…

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• ## The Importance Of Bird Feeding

Bird feeding can attract large amounts of birds to a certain location. Each bird in that location is eager to compete with each other in order to be able to get food to remain alive. The more birds that get attracted by the food,…

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• ## Analysis Of Wild Birds

During this study the time for observations was expected to be from sunrise until late morning. However, as the study proceeded it was noted that the colder weather had impacted upon the activity patterns of birds. With regards to feeding, it was noted that the later mornings and early afternoons were preferred for feeding (Figure 9). Birds are an important part of any ecosystem and naturally, the symbiosis between humans and birds has formed the baseline of some commercial sectors – including the seed industry which produces and sells specific mixes that may be planted to attract wild birds to a garden. Birds are important in agriculture, environmental impact research and an ecosystem as a whole.…

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• ## Songbird Case Study

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• ## Importance Of Protection From Cats

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• ## Cuckoo Algorithmm: Analysis And Design Of Cuckoo Algorithm

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• ## Example Of Altruistic Vigilance

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• ## Satin Bowerbird Case Study

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