The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Arecaceae family also known as the palm family. According to UCC Biology Department, “The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derived from 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish coco, meaning "head" or "skull". Coconut can be dated back to the story of Sinbad the Sailor, One Thousand and One Nights. He is known to have bought and sold coconuts during his fifth voyage. Its Malayalam name, Tenga, was used in the complete description of coconut found in Itinerario by Ludovico di Varthema published in 1510. Even earlier, it was called nux indica, a name used by Marco Polo in 1280. The origin of the coconut plant is to be discussed because no one really knows. O.F.
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The mesocarp contains fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination stoma or eyes that are clearly visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed. A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.44 kg (3.2 lbs.). Unlike some other plants, the palm tree has neither a tap root nor root hairs, but has a tough root system. The coconut palm root system consists of plenty thin roots that grow outward from the plant near the surface. Only a few of the roots enter deep into the soil for stability.
Coconut palms will continue to produce roots from the base of the stem throughout its life. The number of roots produced depends on the age of the tree and the environment, with more than 3,600 roots possible on a tree that's 60 to 70 years old. Roots are usually less than about 3 inches in diameter and uniformly thick from the tree trunk to the root tip. The palm produces both the female and male flowers on the same inflorescence. Other sources use the term polygamomonoecious. The female flower is much larger than the male flower. Coconut palms are believed to be largely cross-pollinated, although some dwarf varieties are self-pollinating.
The coconut palm blossoms on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. It desires areas with ample sunlight and regular rainfall (1500 mm to 2500 mm annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics straightforward.