Biology of Cancer Study Guide Essay

1178 Words Oct 2nd, 2012 5 Pages
Cancer Biology Section 1 Study questions

What is lifetime risk of getting cancer for men and women in US?
Male-1:2
Female-1:3 Which cancer are men mostly likely to get in the US? Women?
Male-Prostate
Female-Breast Which cancers are the most deadly and least deadly (US)?
Most deadly- Lung
Least deadly- non-melanoma skin cancer Name the cell-types that define carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemia’s. Which type is most common?
Carcinomas- glands, organs and tissues, arise from epithelial cell lining external and internal body surfaces; most common cancer
Sarcomas- connective tissues (fat, bone, muscle)
Lymphomas- lymph nodes
Leukemias- bloodstream. Describe and identify normal tissues, tissues undergoing
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A p value of 0.05 means that there is a 5% chance that the observed result is due to chance…..95% chance that it is a reliable difference Explain experimental bias and how to set up a “blinded” and “double-blinded” experiment.
Experimental bias

Expectations of scientist influence gathering or interpretation of data
Scientist should be “blinded” to sources of data
Subjects/participants don’t know which group they are in
Scientists don’t know which data set they are analyzing Does correlation establish cause and effect? If not, what further tests are necessary?
No epidemiological study shows cause and effect.
Need:
1. Epidemiological correlation agent: human
2. Animal/lab subjects carcinogen can correlate Describe the basic components and structure of DNA and RNA.
17. Differences between DNA and RNA:

Sugar Group
Nucleotide Bases
Base pairings
DNA
Double-stranded
Deoxyribose
Adenine (A)
Guanine(G)
Cytosine(C)
Thymine(T)
A:T C:G RNA
Single-stranded
Ribose
Adenine (A)
Guanine(G)
Cytosine(C)
Uracil(U)
A:U C:G Describe the complementary base pairs that occur between strands of DNA.
A:T, C:G
(Adenine:Thymine) (Cytosine:Guanine) Describe DNA replication. Why is DNA replication termed “semi-conservative”? DNA Replication

Each strand of the double-stranded DNA molecule serves as a template for construction of a new complementary strand
Step 1: The two strand of DNA unwind and

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