Addiction: A Genetic Analysis

Superior Essays
Introduction
The NHS defines addiction as “Addiction is defined as not having control over doing, taking or using something to the point where it could be harmful to you.”
Addiction is usually thought of as been related to alcohol, smoking (nicotine), drugs or gambling, but in fact can be associated to far more such as, shopping, solvents, internet, mobile phones or even work.
Many reasons can be related to why something is classed as an addiction, typically with alcohol, smoking and drugs this is due to them making you feel differently to normal how you normally physically or normally feel, as this can be pleasurable for some it becomes an addiction to feel that way again and the repeated use becomes more and more of a strong urge (NHS,
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Genetically speaking the gene effecting addiction is thought to be the DRD2 with an A1 variant, this is codes for D2 dopamine receptors. Meaning people with fewer dopamine receptors would require more of a substance to feel the same pleasure as someone who has what would be considered a normal amount of dopamine receptors. A good example of this would be someone with normal amounts would feel happy and satisfied from having a beer, where as someone with a low amount of receptors would require more than one beer or even a stronger alcoholic drinks to reach the same state, from requiring more to achieve this the process of the addiction to alcohol begins as a desire to feel happy and satisfied and the effects of the dopamine encourage this addiction (psychology4a, N/A).
The biological model assumes with all addictions there is three steps initiation, maintenance and
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Behavioural treatments can be ineffective as they relay on the individual to have self-honesty, which is something a lot of people do lack along with there been a need and will power from the individual (Alcohol Rehab, N/A).
Psychoanalytical
Explanation
The Psychoanalytical model looks at addiction as its part of our personality that will repeatedly pushes us to addictive behaviour regardless of its consciences (McMillin, 2013).
The way everything is viewed with this model is through the thought the mind is made up of three layers, conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
The conscious layer is the smallest part and focuses on been what you are aware of and able to refer and speak of this part of the mind.
Preconscious been the medium part of the mind is considered to be general memory and where you recall past events and information from easily and rapidly.
Unconscious is the largest part of the mind and this is where the bulk of memory is dumped with regards to things like feelings, urges and

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