Biodiesel Production Case Study

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Biodiesel production is usually expressed through the process of trans-esterification reaction. Recently, homogeneous catalysts are broadly preferred for biodiesel production in eminent scale operation. Still, they are toxic, highly flammable and corrosive in nature [1].

Boey et al. analysed the purpose of the waste cockle shell from palm olein oil in biodiesel production of Anadara granosa. At 900 °C the waste shell was calcined for 2 h that mainly compiled of 71% of Ca to develop an active catalyst [2].

Suryaputra et al. developed a new heterogeneous catalyst from waste Capiz shell of Amusium cristatum for biodiesel production. At 93% high FAME yield was obtained with the apply of 3 wt% of developed catalyst in a 6 h reaction. Later the
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assessed the performance of two various types of waste shells of sunflower oil in the transesterification. At 900 °C eggshell and crab shell were calcined for 2 h to disintegrate organic matter and complete transition into CaO. Eggshell expressed better catalytic action than that of crab shell outstanding to the higher surface content of Ca [4].

Smith et al. looked into the potential of bovine bone waste for biodiesel production as the catalyst. The authors proposed on doubling the quantity of catalyst loading to sustain effectiveness of expended catalyst up to six consecutive runs. It is consider as the low cost and ease of catalyst preparation [5].

Jairam et al. studied the pertinency of KI impregnated oyster shell for biodiesel production as catalyst. Farther use in the transesterification of soybean oil ensued in 85% transition into FAME for 4 h reaction time employing 1 mmol/g of catalyst loading
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[18].

Demirbas [19] studied a non-catalytic biodiesel production with supercritical methanol, because of the coincident transesterification of methyl and triglycerides esterification of fatty acids which permits a simple process and high yield. Imahara et al. developed the non-catalytic biodiesel production technologies in plants and animals from oils/fats employing supercritical methanol [20].

In relative to this, different techniques for the oil extraction were prepared such as fractionation and supercritical extraction [21], microwave extraction, subcritical fluid extraction, ultrasonic extraction and reflux extraction [22].

The response surface method [23] and two-phase solvent (TSE) extraction method showed optimal extraction conditions yielding considerably high oil recovery close to 87.8% for oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seeds.

The FAME product properties are processed from the oil extracted by these methods gathered the ASTM specifications for biodiesel

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