BIOCHEM Task Essay

1053 Words Dec 12th, 2013 5 Pages
Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate

Western Governors University
ENZYMES
• Are proteins that act as catalysts, and carry out chemical reactions.
• They speed up or slow down reactions, but remain unchanged. (Thinkwell, 2000)
• Enzymes bind to a substrate (anything that needs to be changed into something else [molecule, protein etc.])
• Enzymes are important in cellular metabolism.
• Enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of carbohydrates and converts them into energy for the body to use.

Lock and Key Model or Induced Fit Diagram of Enzymatic Activity
Effect of Enzymes on Activation Energy
Breakdown of Fructose
• Sucrose is made up of Glucose and
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• These molecules can be broken down to form Acetyl Coa, which then goes into the Citric acid cycle to produce NADH and FADH2 which participates in the electron-transport chain to eventually produce ATP for the body’s energy.
• Citric acid cycle does not actually produce ATP from the cycle, but produces “materials” that are essential to the production of ATP.
• Citric acid cycle is central to aerobic metabolism because it brings all the broken down energy sources (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids) together as Acetyl-CoA to be metabolized into something that can be used for ATP production.
CITRIC ACID CYCLE
• Hypothetical defects can occur in the Citric acid cycle:
• An enzyme that malfunctions = affects the manufacturing of products and the ability of the other enzymes in the cycle to function.
• Example: no citrate synthase = unable produce citrate; thus will be impossible to produce aconitate or isocitrate...and so forth.
• Without the correct enzymes and products, the materials needed to synthesize ATP will not be produced as well.
• Example: without isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADH will not be produced, thus not enough number of ATP will be produced.
• Side products are just as important as the actual products. Without the side

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