Bio; Optional Paper:

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Optional Paper:

Them four: The student-teacher constructivism avoids two extremes:
1) subjective opinion not based on objective knowledge or the exclusion of humans' innate desire for knowledge and for meaning and moral right action. objective knowledge consisting of memorization of facts or blindly submitting to an ideology such as the patriarchal, philosophic perspective of liberal education or scientific positivism

Many of the moral guidelines set out by society are based on the innate knowledge of right from wrong. Religions have established laws or commands, from their particular gods, that reflect this knowledge. They are, in a way, correct in interpreting it thus; for universal codes are the laws of nature, and
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He has charged that postmodernism is too much about approach, rather than outlook, that it is guided too much by “attitude,” instead of cognition. He finds postmodernism fraught with problems because of what he suggests is a heavy dependence upon pragmatism that involves “a working understanding of reality and life.”
I concur with several of the labels that Beck applies to Foucault’s work, even while heartily disagreeing with his negative assessment of those labels. Consider, for instance, Beck’s charge that Foucauldian thought relies too heavily upon pragmatism. Foucault’s pragmatist bent is both pronounced and frequently overlooked. Postmodernism and pragmatism are similar in that neither seeks to replace foundationalist epistemology. Rather, these philosophies draw life from what they investigate and oppose, relying heavily upon the potential for inquiry to disrupt theories and ideas that have previously gone unquestioned. Beck’s pronouncement that Foucauldian thought is dependent upon approach more than outlook is also consonant with my understanding of Foucault. Further, it is a critique that can bemade of pragmatism equally well. William James argued that pragmatism espoused no dogmas, doctrines, special results, or solutions.3 In other words, to use Beck’s terminology, pragmatism has no specific “outlook.” Beck charges that postmodernism involves “a working understanding of reality and life.”

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