Betty Neuman Nursing Theory

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Many times, theories cannot be fully applied to practice because they do not observe every single variable that may happen in the real world. However, nursing theories play an important role in developing the body of knowledge needed for practice (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 114). After exploring the nursing theory developed by Betty Neuman, I have summarized its most important concepts and identified how it incorporates the concepts of human being, health, nursing, and environment. In addition, I have explained the important role that nurses play in this theory, given an example of this theory’s application, and critiqued its conceptual framework. Finally, I have argued the importance of several nursing models to improve nursing practice and knowledge …show more content…
In her theory, the human being is called client. The client is viewed as “an open system consisting of a basic structure or central core of energy resources (physiological, psychologic, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual) surrounded by two lines of resistance” (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p.104). These two lines of resistance are called normal line of defense and flexible line of defense respectively. According to Blais and Hayes (2011) the normal line of defense “represents the person’s state of equilibrium or the state of adaptation developed and maintained over time” (p. 104). In addition, the flexible line of defense “is dynamic and can be rapidly altered over a short period of time” (Blais and Hayes, 2011, p. 104). Lastly, Masters (2014) suggested that the five variables of the human being core system determine the human’s ability to maintain their wellness and respond to stressors (p. 63). However, the human beings have the ability to adapt to these stressors. This ability “is known as reconstitution” (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 104). In summary, it seems that in Neuman’s theory, the human being’s physical, intellectual, and spiritual characteristics play an important role on the effect of stressors in their …show more content…
However, after reading more about this model, I have observed that health is referred as wellness or equilibrium. Ultimately, health is what can be altered due to the internal or external stressors. Also, nursing actions will be taken to help the individual to maintain or recover health. Therefore, although this concept is not widely mentioned in Neuman’s theory, it plays an important role. In addition, this theory addressed the concept of environment by talking about environmental stressors. A stressor is “any environmental force that alters the system’s stability” (Blais and Hayes, 2011, p. 104). According to Blais and Hayes (2011) the stressors can be internal if they occur within the human being; intrapersonal if they take place between individuals; extrapersonal if they happen outside the individual; or created if they are perceived by the individual and constitute a threat to their system and equilibrium (p. 104). The last but not least important concept in Neuman’s theory is nursing. Nursing interventions are performed following three preventive levels and “focus on retaining or maintaining system stability” (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 104). As we all probably have learned in previous classes primary prevention is directed to identify and avoid risk factors that may cause disease. Besides, the secondary prevention is directed to providing treatment once symptoms occur. Lastly, tertiary

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