Summary Of Montesquieu's On The Spirit Of Laws

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3. - On The Spirit of Laws
The Spirit of the Laws was published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, a French nobleman, judge, and influential political figure. His political theories presented in On The Spirit of Laws basically touch upon the role of government within the nation’s political structure. According to him, there are three powers in government, including legislative, executive (in things dependent on laws of nation), and executive (in things that depend on the civil law). To ensure everyone has the equal liberty, the government must be constituted (legislative and executive powers should be no means fall in same person) so no person fears another. However, all these powers shouldn’t be executed by individuals. Montesquieu believes that the executive power should be in hands of monarch, and legislative power should better be regulated by one rather than many. In general, Montesquieu supports a constitutional monarchy.

4. Hume - The Natural History of Religion
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He mainly examines the the origin of human religion, and asserts that origins of religion locate in emotion, especially fear and the desire to control the future. Moreover, according to Hume, religion emerges due to that people have questions about life, death and anything unknown. Also, what make religion complicated are that each individual seeks different goals within religion, plus accidents and “various causes” can disrupt religion. Hume further argues that monotheism arises from competition between religions, as the monotheist drive to dominate other beliefs; this yields “intolerance, intellectual dishonesty, and unnatural moral

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