O2 At Sea Level Case Study

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Q1) State the normal values for the partial pressure of O2 at sea level (with barometric pressure of 760 mmHg) in the following
a. Inspired air b. Alveolar air c. Arterial blood d. Venous blood

1a- 149mmHg
1b-100-104 PaO2(mmHg)
1c-95-100mmHg
1d-40-50 mmHg

Q2) Interpret the probable underlying cause when a person becomes unconscious and dies on exposure to an atmospheric pressure of 200 mmHg. When the human body is suddenly exposed to this pressure it is considered as a vacuum of air and a number of injuries begin to occur. The first effect is the expansion of gases within the lungs and digestive tract due to the reduction of external pressure. Moisture in the victims mouth and eyes will quickly
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This region of the curve is known as the LOADING ZONE(Association). It refers to the upper flat part(Plateau) of the curve, which is related to the process of O2 uptake in the lungs. In a standard curve up to 120mmHg, the curve will show that at 100mmHg or above, the hemoglobin is 100% saturated. It is vital to note that even if pO2 falls to 60mmHg for example, the Hemoglobin saturation will still be 90%. Therefore, the loading zone provides a margin of safety because it ensure fairly high uptake of O2 by pulmonary blood even when alveolar pO2 is moderately decreased in situations such as mountain climbing to a fairly moderate altitude.
Q5) List the effects of atmospheric pressure on the respiratory system, nervous system, renal system and blood

Q6) Discuss how the various system of the body get acclimatized to enable a person to live at high altitude
Changes in Blood RBC count increases and packed cell volume rises from normal value of 45% to 59%. Hemoglobin content in the blood rises from 15 to 20%g. so the oxygen capacity of the blood increases. Increase in RBC count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin content is due to erythropoietin that is release from juxtaglomerular apparatus of kidney.
Changes in Cardiovascular System In high altitude, the overall activity is increased. There is increase in rate and force of contraction of the heart and cardiac output. Due to vasodilatation, the vascularity in the body
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It is done by keeping the person in a recompression chamber. Then, he is brought back to atmospheric pressure by reducing the pressure slowly. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be useful.

Q9) Explain the changes seen in a person with nitrogen narcosis
Fist symptom starts appearing at a depth of 120 feet. The person becomes very jovial, careless and does not understand the seriousness of the conditions.
At the depth of 150 to 200 feet, the person becomes drowsy.
At 200 to 250 depths, the person becomes extremely fatigued and weak. There is loss of concentration and judgment. Ability to perform skilled work or movements is also lost.
Beyond the depth of 250 feet, the person becomes

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