Backward Design, a planning guide Essay

1543 Words Dec 2nd, 2013 7 Pages
The concept of planning “backward” starting from desired results (the end in mind) is not new. In 1949 Ralph Tyler described this approach as an effective process for focusing instruction. Recently, Stephen Covey, in the bestselling book, Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, reports that effective people in various fields are goal-oriented and plan with the end in mind.
Although not a new idea, the deliberate use of backward design for planning curriculum units and courses results in more clearly defined goals, more appropriate assessments, more tightly aligned lessons, and more purposeful teaching.
The backward design process explained by Wiggins & McTighe begins with the end in mind: “One starts with the end - the desired
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4) Demonstrate perspective; i.e., can see the big picture and recognize different points of view.
5) Display empathy; i.e., perceive sensitively and “walk in someone else’s shoes.”
6) Have self-knowledge; i.e., show meta-cognitive awareness, use productive habits of mind, and reflect on the meaning of their learning and experience.
● Not all six facets of understanding need to be used all of the time in assessment.
● Performance Tasks based on one of more facets are not intended for use in daily lessons, but they should be seen as culminating performances for a unit of study.
In addition to Performance Tasks, Stage 2 includes Other Evidence, such as traditional quizzes, tests, observations, and work samples to round out the assessment picture to determine what students know and can do.
Stage 3 – Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction
In Stage 3 of backward design, teachers plan the most appropriate learning activities to help students acquire important knowledge and skills, come to understand important ideas and processes, and transfer their learning in meaningful ways. Teachers consider a set of instructional principles, embedded in the acronym W.H.E.R.E.T.O. providing the blueprint for instructional planning.
W = How will I help learners know – What they will be learning? Why this is worth learning? What evidence will show their learning? How their performance will be evaluated?
H = How will I hook and engage the

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