BAI Case Study

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Items and their Coverage
The 21 items on BAI were originally developed from self-report evaluations that were administered at intake at the Beck Clinic (Beck et al., 1988). The intake sample consisted of 810 outpatients of mixed diagnostic categories. From these self-report evaluations and in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III), 21 items were selected based on two successful factor analyses of different samples (Doward, 2014). The initial item pool of 86 items was drawn from three preexisting scales: the Anxiety Checklist, the Physician’s Desk Reference Checklist, and the Situational Anxiety Checklist. A series of analyses was used to reduce the item pool (Waller, 2014). Items were chosen
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(1988), Fydrich, Dowdall, and Chambless (1990), and Dent and Salkovskis (1986). The first study done by Beck and colleagues consisted of a mixed diagnostic group of 160 outpatients who self-reported predominantly affective and anxiety disorders. The second study done by Fydrich and colleagues consisted of patients diagnosed with DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. The third study conducted by Dent and Salkovskis was a nonclinical sample of 243 individuals which compared norms on the Maudsley Obsessive—Compulsive Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Check List. The scales used were found to intercorrelate significantly. The results obtained on these measures were compared with previous studies of both clinical and non-clinical populations.
One form of reliability within the BAI is test-retest reliability. Beck et al. (1988) report a test-retest reliability of .75 in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients when patients were given the assessment one week apart. Creamer, Foran, & Bell (1995) report a test-retest correlation of .62 with an interval of 7 weeks. Cramer, Foran, and Bell viewed this as reasonable, given that they considered the measure to assess state anxiety, as opposed trait anxiety (NCTSN,
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Some advantages of the BAI include: it is quick and easy to administer and score; the 21 questions are accurate predictors of anxiety disorders (as noted in the validity portion of this paper); it is a useful tool to determine client baselines; it can be helpful for ongoing assessment of the client 's symptomatology; the BAI better discriminates anxiety symptoms from depression when compared to other anxiety measures (as noted in the reliability portion of this paper); and the BAI has been validated in other countries, with studies suggesting that the measure is reliable and valid in a number of

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