Sabri Ciftci’s main argument is that religiosity, Islamic values, and social trust may poorly predict individual support for democracy in the Muslim world. Instead, fifty years on, modernization theory may still be the best explanation for democracy, or the lack thereof, in Muslim majority countries.
After running a series of regressions, including cross-sectional and separate country estimations …show more content…
He makes a distinction between liberal and illiberal nationalism. The former is a secessionist movement taking place amid democratic process, which he believe is natural process of self-determination. The latter, however, is rooted in a sense of cultural, linguistic and religious superiority that can prove detrimental. It can result in militarism, authoritarianism, dictatorship and the kind of supranational worldview Hitler pursued. He argues liberal nationalism should be welcomed and the US national interest can be served better if such secessionist movements are welcomed around the world. He further argues that sometimes US policy harbors …show more content…
Social identity is thus shaped by culture. Social identity types include race, ethnicity, nationality, and religion.
Two perspective on formation of identity: primordial (social identity is shaped since early childhood doesn’t change much all the way during adulthood), Constructivist perspective (identity is formed a result of social interaction and changes since it is socially constructed).
Modernization theory: a process where societies change from traditional way of life to the modern one. This includes education, gender roles, better healthcare, and standards of life going up in general. It also posits that traditional societies don’t modernize due to lack of social mobility, rigid hierarchical power structures, high religiosity and non-scientific worldviews. The theory is weakened by legitimate criticism. It fails to consider structure, institutions, rational choice, and is embedded in western ethnocentrism.
Best development models for developing countries include levels of engagement with the world and coordination of