Motivation And Self-Efficacy

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Affective predictor variables: Attitude/motivation and self-efficacy. Empirical studies in the extant literature have indicated a strong correlation between second language anxiety and two affective factors: attitude/motivation toward learning the target language and self-efficacy (Cubukcu, 2008; Liu, 2012; Mills, Pajares, & Herron, 2006; Shams, 2008;). To examine how students’ target language learning attitude and motivation orientation predict their level of language anxiety in the classroom, this study adapted Gardner’s (1985b) “Attitude/ Motivation Test Battery” (AMTB) as a measuring instrument. Gardner’s AMTB was developed in three parts: 1) Likert-scale questions measuring English-speaking students learning French as a second language …show more content…
Shams (2008) used a modified version of AMTB in his study, examining students’ attitudes, motivations and classroom anxiety towards English language learning in Pakistan. Shams (2008) reported an overall high internal consistency at the Cronbach’s Alpha level of .85, p < .05, with moderate reliability coefficient of the following sub-scales: attitudes towards English language (r = .58, p < .05), attitudes towards English language learning (r = .77, p < .05), classroom anxiety (r = .84, p < .05), intrinsic motivation (r = .76, p < .05), and extrinsic motivation (r = .60, p < …show more content…
NGSE was an eight-item psychometric instrument, developed by Chen, Gully, and Eden (2001), to assess students’ beliefs regarding their learning capacity, competence, and goal orientation. Chen et al. (2001) reported that the NGSE attained high internal consistency reliability (r = .86, p < .05), and the test-retest coefficient has shown to be satisfactory (r = .64, p < .05). In addition, in a principle component factor analysis, Chen et al. (2001) reported that the NGSE

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