Brown's Theory Of Adhd

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Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is described in the DSM-IV-TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) as a neurobehavioral condition that begins in childhood which can cause persistent inattention and/or hyperactivity. It is associated with poorer educational performance, social rejection and in adults increased employment and interpersonal conflict. Also, symptoms of this disorder are associated with conduct and personality disorders. Biederman (1998) stated; between 60% of individuals with ADHD will still be affected by the disorder and display symptoms in adulthood. Studies have found that individuals with ADHD have average or above average intelligence, but due to the nature of their difficulties it can result in them under-achieving …show more content…
This may be explained by executive functioning theory. ADHD is argued to be a disorder of the brains executive functions, and ability to self regulate. Brown’s (2005) model illustrates six clusters of impairments with executive functions; organisation, focusing attention, regulating alertness, managing emotions, use of working memory and emotional modulation. Thus, leading to issues with emotional regulation, motivation and time management; due to lack of memory and planning ability. Also, neurobiological theories suggest dysfunction in the right inferior prefrontal cortex of those with ADHD; this area regulates behaviour and impulsivity (Aron, Robbins & Poldrack, 2004). Therefore, this theory suggests problems with social behaviour; which in turn will affect social skills. In addition, the self-fulfilling hypothesis (Merton, 1948); suggests a behavioural confirmation effect. This theory states behaviour is influenced by expectations and stereotypes, which result in the individual fulfilling these expectations in through their …show more content…
Burns & Martin (2014) propose due to emotional regulation issues individuals with ADHD may struggle with adapting more as this is a necessary skill for adaptability. Shaw, Stringaris, Nigg and Leibenluft (2014) found emotional dysregulation is present continuously throughout the lifespan of an individual with ADHD. Also, they associate emotional regulation issues with deficits in attention to emotional stimuli, which are linked with dysfunction of the striato-amygdalo- medial. They conclude, emotional dysregulation is a main symptom of ADHD. Although, Maedgen & Carlson 2010 found difference between subtypes; ADHD-I didn’t show evidence of emotional regulation problems, whereas ADHD-C did show evidence emotional dysregulation; displaying high amounts of both positive and negative

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