Atrophy And Hyperplasia Case Study

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1. Describe the following cellular adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia (atypical hyperplasia), and metaplasia.
Atrophy is when a cell adapts due to decreased trophic influences, the cell function is decreased and nutrition is decreased, this process decreases the cell size because it looses its subcellular organelles and substances often causing organs to decrease in size and function. Hypertrophy is the opposite of atrophy and causes the cells to enlarge and therefore causes organs and tissues to enlarge because of the cell size enlargement.An example is when you excersize your muscles enlarge as a result, it is not new muscles being grown it is the same muscles but they increase bulk. Hyperplasia is when the cell production
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Some characteristics include impacts to large areas of the body, great damage to the tissue or organ that is impacted,usually impacts the area that received the blunt force injury. Sharp force injury usually is characterized when there is a separation of tissues caused by a sharp or pointed object, this could be from a stab wound from a knife amongst many others but separation of tissue must be present. Gunshot wounds occur when a person is shot with a weapon, depending on the weapon different injuries can be seen. Characteristics of a gunshot wound include an opening from where the impact occuered, the bullet could be fragmented so there is a chance not all parts of the bullet are in the same area of original impact, usually depending on the gun used different tissues are affected causing crushing and stretching of bone, tissue as well as explosion of organ or body part impacted but a clear and definite opening of the bullet should be seen during such injury.Asphyxial injuries occur when a person is deprived of oxygen to the tissue organs and brain. Usually signs and characteristics of asphyxiation will include suffocation, strangulation , or chemichal. There could be definite signs of strangulation such as trauma around the neck or it could be chemichal where no signs …show more content…
. Leukotrienes are part of a lipid which is released from mast cell membranes, they often act similarly to histamines for they act on smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability. They act in the later stages of the inflammatory response because they are slower and have a longer response than histamines(Huether,p207). Prostalandis are pain inducers they are a long chain of unsaturated fatty acids that come from the enzyme cyclooxygenase(Huether,p207). They are able to surpress release of histamines and mast cells making it harder for cells like neutrophils to attack them(Huether,p207). Platelet activating factor(PAF) is also a lipid, it is found in mast cells but can also be produced by neutrophils , monocytes and other cells in the body they act very similarly to leukotrienes in their inflammatory response on smooth muscle contraction and vascular

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