Assessment Methodology of Early Onset Dementia Essay
Doctors often begin their examination of a patient suspected of having dementia by asking questions about the patient's history. For example, they may ask how and when symptoms developed and about the patient's overall medical condition. They also may try to evaluate the patient's emotional state, although patients with dementia often may be unaware of or in denial about how their disease is affecting them. Family members also may deny the existence of the disease because they do not want to accept the diagnosis and because, at least in the beginning, AD and other forms of dementia can resemble normal aging. Therefore additional steps are necessary to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of dementia.
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Doctors may use brain scans to identify strokes, tumors, or other problems that can cause dementia. Also, cortical atrophy -degeneration of the brain's cortex (outer layer) - is common in many forms of dementia and may be visible on a brain scan. The brain's cortex normally appears very wrinkled, with ridges of tissue (called gyri) separated by "valleys" called sulci. In individuals with cortical atrophy, the progressive loss of neurons causes the ridges to become thinner and the sulci to grow wider. As brain cells die, the ventricles (or fluid-filled cavities in the middle of the brain) expand to fill the available space, becoming much larger than normal. Brain scans also can identify changes in the brain's structure and function that suggest AD.
The most common types of brain scans are computed tomographic (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Doctors frequently request aCT scan of the brain when they are examining a patient with suspected dementia. These scans, which use X-rays to detect brain structures, can show evidence of brain atrophy, strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), changes to the blood vessels, and other