Essay on ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

6322 Words Mar 30th, 2014 26 Pages
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Contents
: Abstract
: Introduction
: History
: Concepts
: Branches of AI
: Artificial Intelligence in fiction
: Problems o 7.1 Deduction, reasoning, problem solving o 7.2 Knowledge representation o 7.3 Planning o 7.4 Learning o 7.5 Motion & manipulation o 7.6 Perception o 7.7 Social intelligence o 7.8 Creativity o 7.9 General intelligence
 VIII : Tools o 8.1 Search & optimization o 8.2 Logic o 8.3 Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning o 8.4 Neural Networks o 8.5 Control Theory o 8.6 Languages
 IX : Philosophy
 X
: Applications of Artificial Intelligence
 XI : Conclusion
 XII : References








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I: Abstract

At the
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AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail in the task of communicating with each other. Subfields have grown up around particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, the solution of specific problems, longstanding differences of opinion about how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools.
The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence
(or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals.

III: History
The history of artificial intelligence began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela
McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods."
The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain.

The field of

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