Essay about Archaeology Theory and Methods: Harappan Civilization.

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Sneha Negandhi 1

Archaeology Theory and Methods: Harappan Civilization. Archaeology is defined as the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artefacts and other physical remains by the Oxford dictionary. In simple terms archaeology is the study of ancient and human past using material remains, like the artefacts and ecofacts. The artefacts are defined as the object made by human being, typically one of culture or historical interest1. To study the past, one needs to excavate the sites to find the artefacts. An archaeological site is any place where physical remains of past human activities exist2. A site can be as small as some stone tools with the human skeletons or as large as the
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The permanent settlement began when hunting and gathering was replaced by farming. The habitation sites are the site which has evidence of any human domestic activity. These sites include the Minoan civilisation, the Indus valley civilisation, the civilisations in Egypt, etc. These sites are commonly found and are very importantly as it shows how the people lived, carried out their activities, the social, economic and political culture. The most common artefacts found here are pottery, ornaments and the

Sneha Negandhi 2

architectural of that place, seals and many more artefacts which showed the lifestyle of the people there. Usually these sites are large, depending on the duration of the occupation and the resources available. The religious and social customs of the settlement determine the burial procedures. The sites where the artefacts like burial goods, personal belongings of the carcass are found are the burial sites. These are considered to be the best sites. These sites can give information about the social customs and beliefs of the people. Most of the societies in the past were concerned with afterlife. These people had elaborated rituals and procedures for the funerals. The burial places also showed the ideologies of the people. In some societies the dead were buried in isolated shallow graves within settlements in

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