Essay on Application of Biotechnology 1

940 Words Dec 31st, 2011 4 Pages
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. The concept encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes.
For thousands of years, humans have used selective breeding to improve production of crops and livestock to use them for food. In selective breeding, organisms with desirable characteristics are mated to produce offspring with the same characteristics. For example, this technique was used with corn to produce the largest and sweetest crops. In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of
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Determining sex;
2. Forensic/identity testing;
3. Newborn screening;
4. Prenatal diagnostic screening.
b. Human Genome Project: The Human Genome Project is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy. It has helped us to determine the exact chemical sequence that constitutes the DNA in every cell of a human body. It has the following advantages:
1. Doctors could drip droplets of our genes into a biochip to figure out if we have cancer that could kill or a disease that would respond to a particular drug.
2. Scientists could analyse selective genes from parents and could design babies before conception.
c. Cloning: Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. It involves the removal of the nucleus from one cell and its placement in an unfertilized egg cell whose nucleus has either been deactivated or removed.
There are two types of cloning:
1. Reproductive cloning. After a few divisions, the egg cell is placed into a uterus where it is allowed to develop into a fetus that is genetically identical to the donor of the original nucleus.
2. Therapeutic cloning. The egg is placed into a Petri dish where it develops into embryonic stem cells, which have shown potentials for treating several ailments.
2. Agriculture a. Crop yield: Using the techniques of modern biotechnology, one or

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