Appetite Control System

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Fig.() The appetite control system in the brain. (A) The structural components of the system include the ARC (arcuate nucleus), PVN (paraventricular nucleus), LHA (lateral hypothalamus area), VMN (ventral medial nucleus), and DMV (dorsalmedial nucleus) at the hypothalamus; the NTS (nucleus tractus solitarii) at the brainstem; the NAcc (nucleus accumbens) and amygdala in the prefrontal cortex; and the cortex.
(B) The major appetite signal reception and integration occur in the hypothalamus. In the ARC, the NPY/AgRP neuron (green) produces NPY and AgRP while the POMC/CART neuron (red) produces POMC and CART. These two types of neurons are activated or inhibited by many peripheral signals through cell surface receptors such as Y2R, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), leptin receptor (LepR)and insulin receptor( insR.) The signals from these neurons are integrated in PVN and LHA to produce orexigenic or anorexigenic signals through the production of CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone), TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), ORX (orexin), MCH (melanin-concentrating hormone) etc. Figure adopted from Schellekens et al., (2012).303

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