Anxiety Essay examples
Fears & Phobias • Adaptive responses • Excessive in nature
Fear: excessive fears
Phobia: subset of fears including avoidance fear, anxious anticipation, interferes significantly with daily routine, markedly distressed.
Social Phobia: 2 types: generalized versus nongeneralized.
Five subtypes: animal type; natural environment type; blood-injection type; situation type; “other” type.
Common fears: ontogenetic parade. These include: fear of separation; fear of unfamiliar adults; fear of animals, darkness, & imaginary creatures.
Adult fears: social fears; fears related to blood, illness, injury, or death; fear of animals; fears of environmental hazards.
Genetics: Mean heritability …show more content…
Nocturnal Panic: attacks occur during non-REM sleep & are different from night terrors.
Why does panic disorder progress to panic disorder with agoraphobia?
Two competing hypotheses: 1. spontaneous, unexpected panic should lead to extensive avoidance behavior b/c the individual has little idea of when/where the next attack will occur. 2. expected, situationally predisposed panic should result in phobic avoidance b/c the person believes there are identifiable situations that trigger the panic.
What predicts Agoraphobia?
Hallam (1978, 1983)
Craske & Barlow (1988)
Anxiety one year prevalence 17%
Social phobia appears more often than previously thought
Women 2x more likely = panic disorder / agoraphobia than men. Why?
Age of onset issues
The first panic attack
Comorbidity Issues: depression 24%; risk for suicide greater; Alcohol abuse 10-20%; alcohol population & panic (10-40%); comorbid hypochondriasis; social phobia 17%;
Klein: alcohol hypothesis
Contemporary Approaches to Panic Disorder:
1. Alarms, 2. Barlow (1988), 3. fear is evolutionary “hard wired” response 4. false alarms
Barlow==psychological vulnerability – poor control and predictability
Catastrophic misinterpretations: Clark (1986)
Neurotransmitter Dysregulation: Norepinephrine system; locus coeruleus; the role of serotonin.