Similarities Between HIV And Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

II. Introduction
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If left untreated, HIV can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). The human body has CD4 (T cells) which play an important role in fighting off diseases and building human immunity. HIV significantly reduces the CD4 count level in the body making the body prone to opportunistic infections and cancer. Unlike other viruses, HIV cannot be completely removed from the body. Treatment needs to be continued throughout life. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) can dramatically prolong the life of HIV patients, if taken correctly and regularly (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2016). HIV symptoms can be misleading, therefore, the best way to test for HIV is through testing available
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The risk of co-infection can be considerably reduced through ART. There are five major infectious diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity among HIV patients (Chang et al., 2013).

Tuberculosis
People with HIV are 26 to 31 times more likely to get TB infection than people without HI (WHO, Approximately 14 million people from around the world have HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection. TB is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV patients, responsible for 26 % of total AIDS deaths (WHO, 2015).

Cryptococcus co-infection
Cryptococcus spp., is an environmental yeast endemic to many developed and developing countries around the world. With the increase in HIV infection over the last few decades, the number of cases of Cryptococcus infection has increased as well. Among HIV patients, Cryptococcus is manifested most commonly in the form of cryptococcal meningitis(CM).

Hepatitis B virus co-infection
About 10 per cent of patients living with HIV are coinfected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The number is higher in countries where chronic hepatitis B (CHB), especially in Asia and Africa. Today, liver related mortality is the commonest cause of death among non-AIDS patient with HIV and still on ART.

Hepatitis C virus
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About 56% of the entire population live below the poverty line (Human Development Report, 2015). The economic growth of the country is heavily reliant on South Africa, which completely surrounds this landlocked enclave. South Africa also imports 25% of the products from Lesotho and invests in natural resources. Economic growth in Lesotho remained low (2.7% in 2015). This corresponds directly to Lesotho’s weak prospects in South Africa, lower Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) revenues, and lower global growth prospects (BBC News,

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