Antibiotic Resistance In Farm

2306 Words 10 Pages
Bonnie Bassler, an American molecular biologist, once stated, “When antibiotics became industrially produced following World War II, our quality of life and our longevity improved enormously. No one thought bacteria were going to become resistant” (Bassler, 2002). Bassler suggests how antibiotics can improve our livelihoods by treating health issues. However, there may be a long-term problem associated with increased usage of antibiotics, as there can be additional disease risks with the rise of resistant strains. When thinking of a farm, one might imagine a harmonious unison of animals and farmers on luscious open land. However, that is not the case with the growing practice of factory farming, as there is plenty cruelty in high-density areas …show more content…
Public health experts warn against the use of large quantities of antibiotic in farm animals, especially over long periods of time at sub-therapeutic doses (Lessing, 2010). This is because it allows the animals to develop a resistance to antibiotics. The resistance can be created by the evolution and dispersion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. As a result, the misuse of antibiotics drives this increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The antibiotics are dispensed at low levels because they can rapidly increase animal growth rates by increasing nutrient absorption and preventing infections in the confined conditions of the animals (Anomaly, 2014). Since these are administered for sub-therapeutic purposes, it leaves plenty of room for resistance to develop. The animals are put under cruel conditions to fit in the organized productive environment of a factory farm. This produces high-density conditions because it saves space and gets more efficient output (Anomaly, 2014). These are called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and they are known to get a lack of attention by public health officials (Schmidt, 2009). Therefore, cruel forms are taken to prevent negative factors amongst the animals, such as de-beaking to prevent chickens pecking each other out of frustration or removing pigtails to prevent them from chewing off tails. These …show more content…
To destroy bacteria, organisms can develop chemical and enzymatic disruptions that fight against the harmful bacteria by targeting their DNA synthesis to prevent replication (Lessing, 2010). The response of bacteria is to develop defenses such as membrane blocking antibiotic absorption, enzymes to reduce effectiveness of antibiotics, and efflux pumps to eject absorbed antibiotics (Anomaly, 2014). Bacterial exploitation is a concern, as it promotes disease risk. Organisms can resist bacterial exploitation to an extent by having endogenously produced antibiotics and some having a natural immunity in their genetic makeup (Taubenberger & Morens, 2006). This allows some people to withstand the detrimental effects of specific bacteria due to natural selection. However, bacteria respond in a dynamic manner by evolving quickly. They use horizontal gene transfer by conjugation and transduction to acquire genes from phage viruses of parasitic nature, other bacteria, and sometimes from reluctant hosts (Anomaly, 2014). By doing this transfer, it allows the bacteria to manipulate gene sequences occurring in other organisms to form mutations. This is why antibiotics cannot be developed to eternally remove the risk of destructive bacteria and new ones need to be constantly developed. This understanding of the relationship between antibiotics and bacteria helps to show how the problem at

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