4 Analyze the effects of the cold war on apartheid in South Africa or on another specified issue and region or country.
Note: Initially, my plan was to cover the whole period of the cold war and its effects on Angola. While researching for this topic though, I came across a vast body of works and therefore decided to focus on a more specific theme: Soviet-American competition in the region between 1974 and 1976.
What role did competition between the superpowers have in the early stages of the Angolan Civil War (1974-76)?
As revolution erupted in Portugal in 1974, independence movements in virtually all of its former colonies gained considerable momentum. In Angola, unlike the other
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By May 1975, Neto turned to Havana for assistance. By mid 1975, 230 Cuban military advisers had joined the MPLA and on the 9th of July heavy fighting broke out and quickly spread to other areas. By mid-July the MPLA had expelled the FNLA and UNITA from Luanda. The balance of military power was rapidly being transferred from the FNLA to the MPLA, despite the fact that the FNLA and UNITA had been collaborating. While the US plotted new ways to fund their covert operations without Congress involvement, the MPLA had secured control over twelve of the sixteen provinces of Angola. With the planned date of independence fast approaching, all parties were strategically positioning themselves in order to gain recognition as the government of Angola. As a result of the continuing collaboration by the UNITA with the FNLA and their external supporters, the MPLA drive began to weaken. At about the same time however, Havana was presumably consulting with Moscow on a key decision to upgrade its support for the cause. By early October it had sent 450 Cuban military specialists and advisors by air to Luanda – a move that the Unites States had not anticipated. Later in the same moth, the South Africans, with the support of several thousand UNITA and FNLA (Chipenda faction) troops as well as a group of white Angolan and European mercenaries, made a move towards Luanda itself (“Operation Zulu”). The force made considerable progress, and