Ancient Indian Civilization Essay example

6144 Words Dec 28th, 2012 25 Pages
ANCIENT INDIAN CIVILIZATION

INTRODUCTION

In the 1920s, a huge discovery in South Asia proved that Egypt and Mesopotamia were not the only "early civilizations." In the vast Indus River plains (located in what is today Pakistan and western India), under layers of land and mounds of dirt, archaeologists discovered the remains of a 4,600 year-old city. A thriving, urban civilization had existed at the same time as Egyptian and Mesopotamian states — in an area twice each of their sizes. The Indian civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. It is known as the Sindhu civilization or the Indus Valley civilization or the Aryan civilization. Sometimes it is also referred to as the Vedic civilization.
The Aryans
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Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921/22, and resulting in the discovery of the hitherto unknown civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall
GEOGRAPHY

Physiographically, India is separated from the rest of Asia by the plateau of Iran on the west, the Himalaya on the north and the Arakan Yoma mountains on the east. Two large rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra, rise in the lake region of passes through Kashmir and Punjab into the Arabian Sea. The Brahmaputra traverses the plain of Assam and forms a joint delta with the Ganges River at the Bay of Bengal. The valleys of these three rivers form, to the south of the Himalaya, a great plain, upon which most of the people live. The soil is very fertile, but in places there is a scarcity of rainfall. With irrigation, however, two crops a year can be grown with comparative case.
The country has there rather distinct geographical divisions; 1. The region of the Himalaya, which rises to a height of 29000 feet; 2. The fertile valley of the great rivers, which receives the drainage of the northern as well as of the southern slopes of the Himalaya; 3. The Deccan or southern plateau.
In spite of the high mountains that separate India from the mainland of Asia, access is possible through the passes, by which numerous invaders have entered the peninsula. The invaders had to enter to the

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