Ancient Greek Civilization: The Golden Age

Great Essays
Ancient Greek Civilization: The Golden Age
I. Introduction
At least 2000 years before Christ, on the Island of Crete emerged the first Greek Civilization. Under the leadership of a general name, Pericles, Greece reached its Golden Age or Classical Period, which was later believed to be among the greatest civilizations ever existed. During that period, the Greek culture flourished and the city-state of Athens became the world’s first democracy. Nonetheless, similarly to others, the Greek Civilization declined after invaded by outsiders; for the Greek case, it was the Kingdom of Macedonia.
II. The Emergence of Greek Golden Age 2.1. Art & Literature Ancient Greeks were shaped by religion, thus building massive and breathtaking temples or sculptures
…show more content…
There were two roots that triggered the wars. One was when Athens started collecting money from other city-states to improve its military strength against Persian's invasion and built its state’s temples, such as Parthenon, without collecting taxes from the Athenians (Dr. K.E. Carr, 2015). Athenians also bullied Spartan allies such as Sicily Island. Its actions outraged the inferior states which later asked for Sparta assistance to stop Athens. Another cause was the Spartan jealousy and desires of more itself and the unhappiness of military glory (N.S.Gill, 2015). As a result, 3 unavoidable Peloponnesian Wars broke out between Athens and Sparta. The first one was in 431 B.C. (Dr. K.E. Carr, 2015) and it was called the Archidamian War. It was led by a Spartan King, Archidamus II, on Attica area to deliberate the Greece from Athens' control. However, it just an accusation of Sparta (Lendering). The war forced many people from rural areas overflowing into Athens and caused one-fourth of Athens' armies, along with wise leaders, to die. Moreover, the death of Pericles by Plague epidemic during that time also wrecked Athens. In 425B.C, Athens was weakened further as Sparta captured Amphipolis, an Athens’ colony, to finance them in the battle against its colonizer. Second, the Sicilian War that Athens joined Nicias to attack a Spartan alliance, the Eastern Sicily. It was to gain more support from the Far East and the sources of grain. As a result, Athens left thousands of its armed forces dead and weaken the state, and it defeat the battle about 40,000 armies, and 200 warships (Papakyriakou/Anagnostou, 2014). Last but not least, the Ionian or Decelean War in 414 B.C led Athens to surrender to Sparta, whose militants and navies were backed by the Persian Empire. Having attacked constantly by Sparta, Athens lost a large number of armies; its finance and food supplies

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    First, he started with diplomacy by sending envoys to Greek-city states seeking “water and earth” - which acted as tokens of submission to Persian rule. Many city-states submitted, but the two major powers, Athens and Sparta, threw the envoys down a hole in response. This created an anti-Persian alliance between Sparta and Athens ending a period of conflict between the two cities. In 490 B.C.E., Darius sent an army led by Datis the Mede and Artaphernes the Younger across the Aegean Sea to Eretria. The Persians plundered the city and took its citizens as prisoners.…

    • 1445 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However, once they were along the coastlines of Chersonese his army was hit by a huge terrible sea storm which resulted in losing just about every man and wrecking ships causing King Darius to send in his second army later for the next invasion of Greece. In 490 BC, the battle of the Marathon was a major battle that caused the second invasion of the Persian Wars. The Persians once again charged forth to punish Athens. The commanders leading this second invasion were Datis and Artaphernes who led about twenty-five thousand men with one eighty ships. The Persians sailed down the coast of Greece and landed at the bay of Marathon, about couple miles away from Athens.…

    • 1242 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    The Peloponnesian War featured social and political deterioration. Through power struggles, revolutions, land and sea battles, diplomacy, and rapid cultural change, Thucydides demonstrated his belief that human nature is inherently ambitious and ruthless. In his writing on the revolution in Corcyra, he illustrated the conflict between human law and man’s insatiable desires. He saw the revolution of Corcyra as an example of the general decline of Greece during the Peloponnesian War, characterizing the period as full of political strife and chaos that had dire consequences. Many people died in combat and massacres, buildings and property were destroyed, and Greek society experienced moral decay.…

    • 1515 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In 490 BC, 10,000 Greek warriors charged against the opposing Persian army, composed of 25,000 soldiers. These soldiers were fighting for everything they loved, their land, country, family, even the world. King Darius had to destroy the Greeks to continue his Western expansion, but the Athenians wouldn't let that happen. Most Greek city states surrendered when Persian messengers asked them to, except for the opposing Athenians and Spartans, who killed the messengers. This meant war against the Persians.…

    • 1809 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Unable to replace the manpower losses from the plague and the disaster at Sicily, the Athenian army and navy were routinely now outnumbered by the combined alliance of Sparta, Thebes, and Syracuse. Persian subsidies to this Peloponnesus-led coalition for the first time surpassed the financial reserves of Athens. After the final Athenian sea defeat off Aegospotami, the Long Walls down to the Piraeus were razed, and a Spartan garrison occupied the city.Nearly three decades of constant fighting left Athens bankrupt, exhausted, and demoralized. But Sparta and its allies were in no position to maintain an even harsher military hegemony over Greece. In the detritus of the Peloponnesian War, the agrarian fighting of the old polis was ended.…

    • 835 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The first phase of the Peloponnesian War began in 431 BCE and ended ten years later in 421 BCE. It started because Athenians and Spartans disagreed on a lot. Athenians believed in democracy whereas Sparta had a monarchy. Also, they formed two military leagues, The Delian League(included Athens and other places) and the Peloponnesian League(included Sparta and other places). What finally caused the two disagreeing poleis to go to war was Athens banning Megara merchants.…

    • 584 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    After they rid Rome of their enemies, Octavius and Anthony marched their armies to Macedonia where they met the armies of Brutus and Cassius. Both leaders had vast armies but ultimately Cassiu’s army fell to Anthony and Cassius committed suicide. This left Brutus to fight both armies alone, Inevitably Brutus’s army fell to forces led by Octavius and Anthony, and he too committed suicide. Anthony and Octavius now ruled both the western and eastern providences. The two leaders decided to split the territories, Octavius controlled the west while Anthony controlled the east.The two rulers had two different views on how to run the government, Octavius was loved by the people and was very successful in the west , he destroyed the forces of Sextus Pompeius and he also defeated Lepidus.…

    • 701 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    These attributes was a critical reason why the Greeks endured many struggles throughout the war. One struggle that the Greeks faced during the war was Achilles removing his self from the war. Achilles removed his self from the war because of Agamemnon took Briseis, his war prize. Another struggle the Greeks endured due to Agamemnon malicious ways was the plague that overtook the camp. This plague was created by Apollo It was so harsh that it eliminated half of the Greek army.…

    • 776 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Pericles, the Athenian general at the time requested that other city-states adopt the Athenian Coinage system. When Sparta realizes that Athens was becoming too powerful, they decided to make an alliance with the Persians, and they eventually pushed Athens into surrendering. This pushed all Greeks into losing their governmental stability and lead to the downfall of democracy. Throughout the history of Greece, there has always been a system in which they defeat and conquer other…

    • 871 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The Theban army was slaughtered in battle, the city razed to the ground and 20,0000 people were sold into slavery. Some Macedonian sympathisers survived along with the poet Pindar’s descendants. Plutarch claims that Ale4xander regretted his actions. Never the less, his actions scared the other Greek states and out them under Alexanders submission. Only one attempt by Ages iii to overthrow the Macedonia occurred and was a failure.…

    • 1047 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays