Essay on Ancient Greek And Roman Civilizations

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A. Geography played a very important role in its influence over ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. These civilizations were both established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. This gave them easy access to trading with other civilizations and allowed them to develop an economy strongly reliant on trade. Also, the soil in this area is very poor for growing crops like grain. Thus, farmers mostly produced grapes and olives, which was a very difficult crop to farm. This caused farmers to be thrown into poverty, creating an unstable economy.

B. Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations developed some very influential political forms. Their political institutions were mainly aristocratic and democratic. The direct democracy of some Greek city-states features a general assembly where all citizens could come to discuss political issues. However, in other Greek city-states, aristocrats held most of the power and they governed the common people. Rome established a form of government with Senate of aristocrats and two consuls sharing executive power.

C. Warfare helped to shape classical Mediterranean cultures. During the Peloponnesian Wars, Sparta and Athens fought for control over all of Greece. This caused political decline and the beginning of Alexander the Great’s empire. During his rule, Greek art and culture merged with Middle Eastern culture, forming the Hellenistic period. The Roman Republic grew very large by conquering many other surrounding civilizations. This…

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