Ancient Egyptian Civilization

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For over thousands of years, people all over the world have developed, progressed, and eventually formed civilizations. A civilization is a community characterized by elements such as a system of writing, organized government, culture, social classes, and economics. Throughout history many civilizations have existed; shaping modern existence through elements such as culture and politics as we know it. Civilization began to appear approximately 5,500 years ago in the river valleys of the Nile (North Africa) and the Tigris-Euphrates (the Middle East); the first civilization there was known as Mesopotamia. Slightly later, civilizations blossomed in the Indus Valley (present-day India/Pakistan, 2400 BCE) and in the Yellow River Valley in China …show more content…
Bureaucracy is not a modern invention; it was conceived by the Egyptians over 5000 years ago. The creation of bureaucracy in the Old Kingdom was a key factor in the inception of the Egyptian civilization. The pharaoh was the supreme head of state. Next to him was the most powerful officer in the hierarchy, the vizier, the executive head of the bureaucracy. Sumerians developed their settlements into over twenty city states, the world 's first urban centers (Our, Adab, Nippur, etc...). Each state was an independent political unit and often warred with other city states (having to do with water rights and territory). The system of city states is still used in modern society as many countries have states/provinces which each have their own political unit. For example, in Canada, there are provincial governments which controls things like health care, provincial taxes, driving, drinking. etc... And there is also a federal government. In the area of law, the most biggest contribution of ancient civilization was Hammurabi 's code which had 282 laws covering crime, wages, divorce, commerce, and land transfer. The laws were extremely harsh and punishments varied depending on the offender and their offence. Over many years, civilizations of the world have taken Hammurabi 's code by example and have made their own law system. Today, most countries now have a fair legal system, making people feel more safe and well treated. Therefore ancient civilizations have changed the modern world by influencing us through their ways of government and

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