Essay about Anatomical Variation Of The Superior Thyroid Artery
Anatomical variation of the superior thyroid artery and its relation to the external laryngeal nerve.
The thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland located in the anterior triangle of the neck. It consists of two lobes, right and left, connected by an isthmus in the middle.
The thyroid gland is mainly supplied by the superior thyroid artery, the first branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior thyroid artery, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery; and occasionally by the thyroidea ima artery, an infrequent branch of the arch of the aorta.
The venous drainage of the thyroid gland is into the internal jugular vein through the superior and the middle thyroid vein; and by the inferior thyroid vein which ends in the left brachiocephalic vein.
Thyroid surgery is a common surgical procedure done worldwide to treat several thyroid diseases such as thyroid cancer, retrosternal goitres and thyrotoxicosis not responding to medical treatment.
Moreover, the thyroid gland is also encountered in several other procedures involving neck exploration such as tracheostomies and trauma cases. Thus, deep knowledge of the thyroid surgical anatomy and variations are mandatory to avoid serious complications.
One of the surgically important anatomical relations is the close association between the external laryngeal nerve and the superior thyroid artery which carries a risk of inadvertent nerve injury. In addition, the existence of…