Analysis: The Fadeout Effect

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The Fadeout Effect
The fadeout effect is a phenomenon where the intelligence gained from environmental interventions, decreases over time. John Protzko, a psychologist in the University of California, created a paper testing whether the environmental interventions are bidirectional. In order words, Protzko wanted to determine if interventions that have raised IQ, will sustain their effects. He tested 7584 participants with 39 randomized control trials while using a mixed-effects analysis. He analyzed the data using growth curve analysis with meta-analytic weights and tested the change of intelligence over time. In the results of his growth curve analysis, it showed that the effects of early intervention had a significant decrease in intelligence
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This study is a longitudinal meta-analysis, which is the statistical synthesis of the data from a set of observational studies and controlled trials that yields a quantitative summary of the pooled results (Crane and Hannibal, 54). The advantages of using meta-analysis is that it is able to estimate the effects of the environmental interventions by using the pooled results and it gives a large sample population. A large sample population will give a better representation of the population. Additionally, it allows for objective appraisal because it is using a statistical analysis and it avoids the Simpson’s Paradox. The Simpson Paradox is where a trend appears in different groups of data, but reverses when the groups combine. However, the disadvantages of a meta-analysis is that Protzo selects data from specific studies to support his claim, but there could be skewed data or publication bias. It also uses summary data instead of individual data causing generalization and makinf the study less …show more content…
(1995) supports Protzo’s Fade Out Effect and gives a reason to why the Fade Out Effect occurs, specifically using the outcome of Project Head Start. Both Lee and Loeb agreed that children who participated in the Head Start Program had a decline in their IQ and intelligence levels because their education and knowledge that they gained during the program was not reinforced. The children who partook in the Project Head Start program are still apart of families who come from a low demographic and participated in lower quality ____ for both elementary school and middle school.
"Head Start Fade", in which significant initial impacts quickly fade, has often been observed, as early as second and third grade.[28][29][30] One hypothesis is that the decline is because Head Start participants are likely to attend lower-quality schools, which fail to reinforce Head Start gains.[28]
Valerie E. Lee; Susanna Loeb (Spring 1995). "Where Do Head Start Attendees End up? One Reason Why Preschool Effects Fade Out". Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 17 (1): 62–82. doi:10.2307/1164270.
S. Barnett (1993). "Does Head Start Fade Out?". Education Week. 5: 40.
S. Barnett (Winter 1995). "Long Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes". The Future of Children. 5 (3): 25–50. doi:10.2307/1602366.

Two other studies in the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies reported effects on IQ of about 1/2 standard deviation, gone by age

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