# Analysis Of The Genetic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

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4.1 The GABC Approach for Image Segmentation
The GABC is the Genetic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. The proposed algorithm is the implementation of ABC algorithm with the key concept of GA technique.The GABC is actually the hybrid approach of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm.In this method we extend Genetic Algorithm with Artificial Bee Colony operators i:e Employed Bees and Onlooker Bees to improve the solution space named as Genetic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (GABCA). Genetic algorithms belong to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA), which generate solutions using techniques inspired by natural evolution to optimization problems. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is an optimization algorithm based on
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The ABC algorithm defines ith fitness value fitnessi as,

fitnessi= {(1/(1+fi ))/(1+abs(fi))┤ (2)
Candidate food source position from old one in memory can be generated as, vij=xij+ Φij( xij+ xkj) (3) where k={1,2,……,SN} and jϵ{1,2,…..,D} are randomly chosen indexes. Φijϵ [-1, 1] is a random number. The comparison between viand xi positions is done and the remaining one is a better solution. If the food source is abandoned by bees, the old food source is replaced with a new food source by the scout bees which exploit it with the new one as, xi j= xjmin + rand(0,1) (xjmax - xjm (4) where xi is abandoned source, jϵ{1,2,….,D}, xjmin and xjmax are the lower and upper bounds of jth dimension of problem space.
Form the above study, it shows that ABC is a well-suited and well-performed algorithm for various optimization problems and also for segmentation of images, there are still some limitations. For some problems, convergent speed of ABC is quite slower. It is also not well suited for some complex multimodal problems as it get slowly trapped in local optima. To overcome this limitation issues, a hybrid approach of Genetic ABC is
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In general, gray information doesn’t include average gray value of pixels which is spatial information of pixels. Thus in order to better utilize the gray information and spatial information of grey scale images, the improved computation method of 2D entropy came into existence.

4.4.1 GREY NUMBER IN GREY THEORY
An effective mathematical method for solving problems like uncertainty and indetermination developed by Deng in 1982 called as Grey theory [29]. It’s a multidisciplinary and generic theory that is designed to deal with systems containing poor information. Grey theory, the random process is treated as grey process within certain range and a random variable is regarded as a grey number.
Definition : A grey number can be defined as an unknown value in an interval with known lower and upper bounds of x, where x denote a closed and bounded set of real numbers.
( ⊗) ̅x є [▁(⊗)x,⊗ ̅x] where ▁(⊗)x and ¯(⊗)x are lower and upper bounds of ⊗x

• ## Neem And Barbaka Case Study

209 “ipm action plan for honeybee”.1999 10. Science forum. 2000. Beekeep. info for a treatise on modern honey bee management/ managing diseases and pests/biological control in beekeeping.…

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• ## Cuckoo Algorithmm: Analysis And Design Of Cuckoo Algorithm

Each egg in a nest represents a solution, and a cuckoo egg represents a new solution. The aim is to use the new and potentially better solutions (cuckoos) to replace a not-so-good solution in the nests. The three basic principles are: 1) Each cuckoo lays one egg at a time, and dumps its egg in a randomly chosen nest. 2) The best nests with high quality of eggs will carry over to the next generation. 3) The number of available host nests is fixed and the host bird finds the egg laid by the cuckoo having fixed probability.…

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• ## Honey Bee Research Paper

Chemical communication is connected to pheromones. Pheromones are “chemical scents that animals produce to trigger a behavioral response from the other members of the same species” (Blackiston 25). Honey bee pheromones are basically the “glue” that secures the colony and certain pheromones stimulate different behaviors. For example, certain queen pheromones let the entire colony know that the queen is present, force the worker bees to work, and act as sex attractants. Other pheromones control the drone population, help guide worker bees back to the hive, alarm bees of aggression within the hive, and help worker bees recognize the needs of other bees.…

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• ## Honey Bees Behavior Essay

Honey bee workers are born to perform all the functions in the colony, while some worker stay in the hive other go in search of hive essentials such as nectar and pollen. Studies have actually shown that the entire honeybee workforce in the colony constitutes of genetically identical sister bees. The difference between the worker bees that stay at home and those that go out to forage reveals several distinct patters. For instance, the worker bees that go out to forage for food have been shown to have chemical tags in their genes that is different from those of bees that stay at home. The interesting part is however, the fact that these DNA patterns can be switch when the bees swap jobs.…

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• ## Regression Analysis In Healthcare

This process is very helpful when it could be very troublesome or unlikely to examine each member of an entire population. To express the results, you convey this by using a range of numbers along with a degree of confidence. Ordinary linear square, also known as OLS, is one of few prediction techniques. This method estimates the unknown bounds in a linear regression model. Generally, the goal is to reduce the disparities among the observed dataset and the linear approximation of the data.…

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• ## Dorsata Bee Bread Lab Report

dorsata`s and T. itama`s bee bread are placed in the intermediate/middle category. This phenomenon probably happened because the structure of bee bread formation are coming from many types of pollen in the tropical forest that have such diversity of types of pollen. Therefore, when the pollen is taken and stored in the hive, it does not only take from one or two types of good quality pollen (pollen which has minimum 18% of crude protein) but also come from low quality pollen (pollen which has less than 18% of crude protein). As a consequence, the crude protein value given above is a average of all pollen. However, this results contrast to some of the results in Figure 1 which has the specific pollen plant.…

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• ## What Is The Importance Of Teaching In Honey Bees

Teaching in honey bees Teaching is widespread throughout the human’s species, however for other organisms, while social learning is commonly found, it is not currently clear how common teaching behaviours are within other organisms. Furthermore, the research that has been conducted tends to surround animals, for instance, Meerkats as they learn to defend themselves against scorpions (Thornton & McAuliffe, 2006) or the ability for New Caledonian Crows to learn to shape hooks to use as tools (Weir, Chappell, & Kacelnik, 2002). This may be due to the fact that for learning to be acknowledged as teaching, it must meet the definition developed by (Caro & Hauser, 1992). Their research indicates that teaching must firstly, modify the behaviour of…

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• ## Standard Error Of Measurement Summary

The article, “Standard Error of Measurement” by Leo M. Harvill from East Tennessee State University, provided a general introduction of Standard Error of Measurement (SEM). First, it introduced the basic concepts of test reliability. An obtained score or a raw score refers to the number of points obtained by an examinee. The obtained score could be influenced by several factors such as the ambiguity of test items, the fatigue of the examinee, and these factors make the obtained score unlikely to reflect the true abilities of examines. A true score is such a score that could not influenced by those random events and could represent the true abilities of examinees.…

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• ## Spreading And Transgenesis: A Genetic Analysis

This gene will then also be present in the offspring of that organism. An example of this is within corn. The corn is genetically modified to produce its own ‘natural’ pesticide, this is known as ‘BT corn’. The problem with natural corn was that the silk worms liked…

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• ## Broiler Chickenss: A Case Study

2006; Strathe et al. 2011) . The popularity of the broken line approach may be the consequence of the fact that one single point can be objectively defined (Rodehutscord and Pack 1999). The coefficient of correlation (R2) and mean square error (MSE) calculated by R software in this study, show the great adjust of the model by the simulate data, this is important because the lack of fit of model can make recommendations of MCi out of range the optimal…

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