Analysis Of The Citric Acid Or Krebs Cycle

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Register to read the introduction… As seen in the previous diagram Acetyl CoA is added to oxaloacetate which forms citrate removing coenzyme A (CoA-SH). Citrate is then isomerized forming the enzyme isocitrate. When this happens one H2O molecule is lost, but another H2O molecule is added. The next step converts isocitrate to alpha-ketogluterate (α-ketogluterate) by removing a carbon releasing CO2 and NAD+ is reduced to form NADH+H+. Step 4 of this process converts α-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA. In this step coenzyme A is added and another CO2 is lost and NAD+ is reduced again forming another NADH+H+. Succinyl CoA is converted to succinate in step 5 and coenzyme A is released forming GTP (guanosine triphosphate). GTP is hydrolyzed to form ATP. In the next step succinate becomes fumarate and FAD is reduced to form FADH2. In step 7 H2O is added changing fumarate to malate. The final step converts malate to oxaloacetate producing an NAD+ which is reduced to NADH+H+. At this point the cycle is complete and the oxaloacetate is ready to restart the cycle with a new acetyl CoA. (Wolfe, …show more content…
In the inner mitochondrial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP. CoQ10 functions as an electron carrier from enzyme complex I and enzyme complex II to complex III in this process. This is crucial in the process, since no other molecule can perform this function. Thus, CoQ10 functions in every cell of the body to synthesize energy.”

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