Analysis Of Mean Spirit By Linda Hogan

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An Ecofeminist Critical Approach to Linda Hogan’s Mean Spirit

Mona A. M. Ahmed Zagazig University, Egypt

Key words:

literature, Linda Hogan, Mean Spirit, ecofeminism, oppression.

The aim of the present paper is to attempt an ecofeminist critical approach to Linda Hogan's novel, Mean Spirit (1990), which is actually an application of the fundamental ecofeminist critical principles. The late twentieth century witnessed the emergence of ecological feminism or ecofeminism as a critical approach which associates between feminism and ecology. The term ecofeminism was first used in 1974 by the French writer, Francoise D' Eaubonne,
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In her introduction to Ecofeminism: Women, Culture, Nature, the eminent ecofeminist critic, Karen J. Warren, defines ecological feminism or ecofeminism as ''the position that there are important connections between how one treats color, and the underclass on the one hand and how one treats the nonhuman natural environment on the other'' (xi). Warren points out that ecological feminists are of the view that the failure to recognize such close ''connections seriously is grossly inadequate'' (''Taking Empirical Data'', 3). As a consequence, Warren stresses the interconnection between human and nonhuman nature; she is against the various kinds of domination such as racial domination, class domination and nonhuman nature domination. In addition, Warren is of the view that one of the fundamental aims of ecofeminism is to explore the close relationship between woman and nature, and to put an end to the oppression inflicted upon them. She believes that ''A main project of ecofeminism is to make visible these 'woman-nature connections' and where harmful to woman and nature to dismantle them'' (''Introduction to Ecofeminism'' n. p.). Warren, thus, pinpoints the elimination of the abuse of both woman and nature as an ultimate aim of ecofeminism.

Greta Gaard, another outstanding ecofeminist critic, adopts the same notions of Warren. She is against all types of oppression such as the oppression of race, class and gender. Additionally, she points out that ecofeminism confirms the fact that the liberation of woman is inseparable from that of nature. In an article entitled ''Living Interconnections

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