3.1 Comparison of factors
On the surface, Mao followed many aspects of Marxist’s communist theory. This are especially seen in the aspects of the abolition of the bourgeoisie, elimination of private property. In this section, I will be focusing more on the areas of deviation.
Aspect Marx Mao Deviated?
Social Classes Removal of bourgeoisie Eradication of 4 classes No
Abolishment of private property Land to be redistributed
Collectivization Land redistributed + collectivization Not at all
Education of the people Technical-orientated
Incorporation of work into school Liberal arts discouraged
Compulsory education for all
Incorporation of work into school
Preferable choosing of cadres Minimal
Treatment …show more content…
This is not in line with Marxist thought, where Marx emphasized for a “peaceful revolution if possible”. This deviation is due to Mao’s characteristic of using violence. There were multiple causes that could have led to such a characteristic or belief within Mao. Firstly, it is the fact that the history of China is tainted with one bloody revolution after another, establishing dynasty after dynasty. This could result in the mentality of using violence once again. This is ironic when seeing how Mao greatly looked down upon “old culture”. Secondly, is the circumstances of the situation. Take, for example, the Cultural Revolution. On the surface, Mao called for the saving of the communist ideology as it was being threatened. However, it was a tool used by Mao to get himself back into power. In the face of the failed Great Leap Forward, he was getting increasingly sidelined by other members within the CCP, eventually threatening his loss of power. The Cultural Revolution targeted the revisionists, or anti-communists, which constituted multiple party members of the time who were sidelining Mao. It is for such a dire situation that Mao utilized his extreme influence of the people to turn them against his opponents. Hence, it can be said that Mao utilized the revolution for his own means, resulting in millions of death to keep him in perpetual …show more content…
This is in contrast to Mao’s multiple moves to establish a public cult of personality. This can be seen from the Cultural Revolution where 350 million copies of Mao’s little red book glorifying him and his ideology was printed by December 1967. In the autumn of 1966 Mao reviewed some 11 million ”Red Guards” in Peking, prior to their return to their home areas ”to spread the flames of the cultural revolution”. At the same time all the organs controlled by the counter-revolutionaries began to publish large photographs of Mao Tse-tung in every issue, he being described as “the great teacher, great leader, great supreme commander and helmsman...” Mao used his personality cult to launch the Cultural Revolution in the first place, and it was also his death that ended the movement. He transformed himself to become a godlike figure in his own country. While Mao was extremely popular during the Cultural Revolution, the ultimate underlying aim was still for him to consolidate his power, his personality is once again another tool for his manipulation for his personal