An Introduction to Taxation Solutions Essay
An Introduction to Taxation
I:1-1 The Supreme Court held the income tax to be unconstitutional in 1895 because the income tax was considered to be a direct tax. At that time, the U.S. Constitution required that an income tax be apportioned among the states in proportion to their populations. This type of tax system would be extremely difficult to administer because different rates of tax would apply to individual taxpayers depending on their states of residence. p. I:1 2.
I:1-2 The pay-as-you-go withholding was needed in 1943 to avoid significant tax collection problems as the tax base broadened from 6% of the population in 1939 to 74% in 1945. Pay as you go permitted the federal government …show more content…
I:1-5 The marginal tax rate is of greater significance in measuring the tax effect for Carmen's decision. The marginal tax rate is the percentage that is applied to an incremental amount of taxable income that is added to or subtracted from the tax base. Through the marginal tax rate, the taxpayer may measure the tax effect of the charitable contribution to her church. If her marginal tax rate is 25%, she will save 25¢ for each $1 contributed to her church. The average tax rate is simply the total tax liability divided by taxable income. pp. I:1-5 and I:1-6.
I:1-6 Gift and estate taxes are levied when a transfer of wealth (property) takes place and are both part of the unified transfer tax system. The tax base for computing the gift tax is the fair market value of all gifts made in the current year minus an annual donee exclusion of $13,000 (2011) per donee, minus a marital deduction for gifts to spouse and a charitable contributions deduction if applicable, plus the value of all taxable gifts in prior years. The tax base for the estate tax is the decedent's gross estate, minus deductions for expenses, and a marital or charitable deduction if applicable, plus taxable gifts made after 1976. pp. I:1-7 through I:1-10.
I:1-7 a. Cathy, the donor, is primarily liable for the gift tax on the two