Ammonia Research Paper

Superior Essays
Ammonia is a compound composed of nitrogen and hydrogen, having the formula NH3. The ammonia molecule is formed by sp3 orbitals as it has a tetrahedral geometry and a trigonal pyramidal shape. Ammonia has an experimentally determined bond angle of 106.7°, and an a bond length of 101.7 pm. The nitrogen atom in the molecule has a lone electron pair, which gives the molecule a dipole moment and polarity. Ammonia’s lone electron pair makes NH3 a base, a proton acceptor, and gives it the ability to readily form bonds. In liquid and solid states, ammonia associates through hydrogen bonds (“Ammonia” Wikipedia). In the gaseous phase, ammonia is a colorless gas with a very pungent, irritating odor. Ammonia exhibits the same characteristics in the …show more content…
Since ammonia is a weak base, it combines with acids to form salts. Liquid ammonia is commonly reacted with hydrogen chloride to form a cloud of ammonium chloride. Salts produced by the reacting ammonia with acids or known as ammonium salts and contain the ammonium ion, NH4+. NH3 also ionizes to a small extent with metal oxides and the halogens. Like water, ammonia undergoes molecular autoionisation to form its acid and base components, decomposing to NH4+ and NH2- (“CHEM-GUIDE”). Ammonia is combustible in air, producing nitrogen gas and water. The combustion of ammonia is exothermic and usually needs some sort of catalyst to occur. While ammonia is highly stable, it can be decomposed into nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas by passing it over a heated metallic catalyst (“Ammonia” …show more content…
For example, because of its vaporization properties, ammonia is a useful refrigerant. Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial refrigeration applications because of its low cost and energy efficiency. Methods are being pursued to combat ammonia’s toxicity, which restrict its small-scale refrigeration use. Ammonia has even been proposed as an alternative to fossil fuels for internal combustion engines. Ammonia has a calorific value that is about half that of diesel, allowing it to potentially be used as fuel. However, there are currently many barriers preventing this from being implemented. Ammonia cannot easily be used in existing Otto cycle engines because of its low octane rating, meaning new pistons and engines would have to be made to work exclusively with ammonia. Also, a fuel tank storing ammonia would have to be pressurized accordingly to keep ammonia in the liquid phase (“Ammonia”

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    The steps of synthesis process can be explained in Fig. 1. The Zn (NO3)2.4H2O (zinc nitrate tetrahydrate) and Al (NO3)2.9H2O (aluminum nitrate nonahydrate)…

    • 334 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Dihydrogen Monoxide is a really dangerous chemical compound. Dihydrogen Monoxide is a colorless and odorless chemical compound also referred to by some as dihydrogen oxide. Dihydrogen Monoxide has many different hazards the main hazard is by accidental inhalation. Another hazard is severe burns, rust on many medals, it may cause electrical failures, and it has been found in excised tumors of terminal cancer patients.…

    • 64 Words
    • 1 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Communication /6 Problem #2 Use the chart you just created to answer the following questions. a) Which substance would be the most corrosive? /1 Sample number 2 is the most basic and corrosive substance between the four samples.…

    • 1333 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Initially, ammonia is incorporated into glutamate to form glutamine via glutamine…

    • 420 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Nitrogen (N) - Low ~ Answer the following questions in complete sentences. Your answers will be based on your soil test results, what you have learned in class and independent research. ~ 1. Why is nitrogen important in soil? What does nitrogen do for the soil?…

    • 784 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Being able to lose weight without having to exercise a lot of time is something everybody would love to experience Fortunately, this seems to be possible. In accordance with a research made recently, compound 14, a synthesized molecule that tricks cells into thinking they have exercised rigorously has just been discovered. That actually means that researchers from the University of Southampton in The UK could soon create a functioning weight-loss pill. What Does Compound 14 Do?…

    • 375 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Answer the following questions. You may use the periodic table in the Chemistry: Problems and Solutions book for this test. When you have finished, submit this assignment to your teacher by the due date for full credit. (5 points) Score 1. Pentane gas (C5H12) combusts with oxygen gas (O2) to form water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).…

    • 396 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    While this is true, methane hydrates are significantly better for the environment than oil, coal, and natural gas. Until renewable energy such as solar and wind can be mass produced at the market level we should invest in the exploitation of gas hydrates. As was previously stated, gas hydrates are plentiful and thus should be taken advantage of. For example, “there is more energy in methane hydrates than in all the world's oil, coal and gas put together” (BBC). Our current forms of non-renewable energy are rapidly depleting and the cost is rising as it is getting more difficult and dangerous to…

    • 984 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Laughing gas has been used as an anesthesia for dentistry since 1844. Up to today, it has been used for many other medical procedures and surgeries, but it is widely known and used for oral surgeries. The procedure of laughing gas in surgery is very simple, Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) is a gas in which you inhale. When you inhale the colourless gas, it reaches the brain in around 20 seconds and it starts to relax your body and develop pain-killing properties to keep you composed and calm. You still retain conscious, unlike general anesthesia, but you start to feel a sense of carefree and ease while the surgery is being performed in your mouth.…

    • 924 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Neon Research Paper

    • 550 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Neon was discovered in the late nineteenth century. In the 1890s, John William Strutt observed that nitrogen extracted from the air was always slightly heavier than nitrogen obtained from chemical compounds. This curiosity was noted previously by Henry Cavendish, but it remained anonymous. ("Neon," 1999). In 1898, a Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) and English chemist Morris M. Travers (1872-1961) discovered neon just after they discovered the element krypton that same year.…

    • 550 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Pass Gases Research Paper

    • 576 Words
    • 3 Pages

    It also shows that the levels of gut bacteria are well balanced. Gases consist of: • 21 percent hydrogen • 9 percent carbon dioxide • 9 percent nitrogen • 7 percent methane • 4 percent oxygen • 1 percent hydrogen sulfide Gases can be smelly due to the one percent of hydrogen sulfide. Approximately, people can pass between 5 and 14 gases a day. Most of the gases are passed during sleep.…

    • 576 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Sodium cyanide reacts violently with acid and is incompatible with strong oxidants. The material is a substance has a strong affinity for moisture and it will actually absorb very large amounts of water from the atmosphere if it is exposed to it. Sodium cyanide can cause serious or permanent injury, it will not burn under typical fire conditions and it is normally stable and even under fire conditions. At least 5 fold excess of water, half of the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen cyanide gas will be created in at least 10 to 12 minutes.…

    • 452 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Chlorine Research Paper

    • 529 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Chlorine is 2.5 times as heavy as air. It has a pungent, suffocating odor and it is poisonous. 1. 4. Chlorine is highly reactive and, due to its capability to combine with nearly any other element, in nature it is only found as part of compounds, the most common being sodium chloride. 1.…

    • 529 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Gas Hydrate

    • 106 Words
    • 1 Pages

    Gas hydrates or clathrate hydrates are non-stoichiometric crystalline compounds made up of networks of water molecules. These water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. Gas molecules with suitable size are captured by the networks of water molecules in a cage-like structure [1]. Gas hydrate formation in gas and oil industry can be dangerous and could cause disasters. The presence of salt in saline formation water can inhibit gas hydrate formation [2].…

    • 106 Words
    • 1 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Nitrate is the most common form of nitrogen (represented by NO3 ). Nitrate is a chemical combustion of nitrogen and oxygen. Even though nitrogen cover 79% of the Earth, most of it is inert. This inactive form of nitrogen is not able to react with oxygen to create nitrate. Natural events like lightning and cosmic radiation creates nitrates in the atmosphere, which brought down to Earth by precipitation.…

    • 111 Words
    • 1 Pages
    Improved Essays