American Civil Rights Movement Essay

15821 Words Jan 18th, 2011 64 Pages
1. American Civil Rights Movement


1865 and 1870 - Three Constitutional amendments: The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment gave blacks the rights of citizenship, and The Fifteenth Amendment gave them the right to vote. Until the modern civil rights movement (1950s) blacks were denied access to public places such as restaurants, hotels, theaters, and schools.
There were separate facilities marked "colored only", which was sanctioned by the courts.
1896 The Supreme Court: “Racial segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal"”
1954 The Supreme Court ruled that maintaining separate but equal schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional.
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There simply isn't a lot of law on most of the other forms of doing business. In the case of entities like business trusts, the applicable law is common law, harder to determine, understand, and predict than statute. • The financial markets have been developed to easily accommodate the mechanics of share issuance and transfer. Partnerships are more cumbersome. • Those who put up the money can decide on the management and changes in extreme cases. In a partnership, those who put up the money cannot change the general partner. But the most attractive component of the corporate model is limited liability - the owner's liability is limited to the amount of his investment.
The shareholder has the exclusive control of the stock itself. But as a condition of the shareholder's limited liability, the shareholder gives up the right to control use of the corporation's property by others. That right is delegated to the management of the corporation.

After the Civil War, companies began to form "trusts." It was clear that if competitors in the same line of business worked together instead of separately they could control prices. This was not illegal or even disapproved of at the time. In the 1870s and 1880s, several companies achieved spectacular size, not by internal growth, but by merger. Perhaps the most famous example is 'John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company of

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