ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION APPROACHES AND THEIR APPLICATION
Yona Shamir Israel Center for Negotiation and Mediation (ICNM), Israel
(Assisted by Ran Kutner)
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.
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Conflicts have existed in all cultures, religions, and societies since time immemorial, as long as humans have walked the earth. In fact, they also exist in the animal kingdom. Philosophies and procedures for dealing with conflicts have been part of the human heritage, differing between cultures and societies. Nations, groups, and individuals have tried throughout history to manage conflicts in order to minimize the negative and undesirable effects that they may pose. Conflicts can develop in any situation where people interact, in every situation where two or more persons, or groups of people, perceive that their interests are opposing, and that these interests cannot be met to the satisfaction of all the parties involved. Because conflicts are an integral part of human interaction, one must learn to manage them, to deal with them in a way that will prevent escalation and destruction, and come up with innovative and creative ideas to resolve them. Dealing with conflicts – “conflict management,” or “conflict resolution” as it has come to be called in professional circles – is as old as humanity itself. Stories of handling conflicts and the art of managing them are told at length throughout the history of every nation and ethnic group who share the same history. Conflicts have been recorded from the very early days of humankind. We find in The Bible and similar religious