Alterations In The Gut Obesity Case Study

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Review: Alterations in the Gut Microbiome caused by Consumption of Non-Digestible Carbohydrates Counteractive Effects on Diet-Induced-Obesity

For the first time in human, the number of fatalities related to obesity outnumber those caused by malnutrition (World Health Organization [WHO] 2015). This troubling fact is followed by a second, equally concerning one, that being, for the first time in United States’s history, the next generation is predicted to have a shorter life expectancy than the previous (Dollemore). These two somber realities clearly depict one of today’s greatest adversaries: the obesity pandemic. Obesity is characterized by an excess of fat mass, resulting from both genetic and environmental factors (Turnbaugh, Gordon). In
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These free SCFAs are signaling molecules involved in various molecular processes, such as regulation of energy metabolism (Delzenne, Nathalie M., 2011). Free SCFAs link gut dysbiosis to adipose tissue development through activation of pathways like gene-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), which is activated by acetate and propionate. GPR43 is involved in the inhibition of lipolysis and to the adipocyte differentiation (Delzenne, Nathalie M., 2011). The activation of GPR43 by acetate was followed by a reduction in the plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA). This indicates the inhibition of lipolysis due to the measurable decrease in the concentration of FFA in the host’s system (Delzenne, Nathalie M., 2011). The increase of free SFCA generated by fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates, such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) was shown to discourage the metabolic processes involved in adipose tissue development (Dewulf, Evelyne M., 2011). There are other metabolites produced by the microbiome that also act as mediators and coactivators in the biological and physicochemical processes involved in host metabolism. Lipid metabolites such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bind to specific receptors thereby triggering specific genes expression that affect metabolic activity of the host (Dewulf, Evelyne M., 2011). LPS is found in a significantly higher level in the serum of obese individuals and is associated with a series of metabolic pathways that ultimately contributes to insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, and obesity (Delzenne, Nathalie M., 2011). A study examining the effects of the western diet on the gut microbiota found that a HF-diet caused significant changes in expression levels of LPS mRNA within the cecal microbiome, causing significant alterations in the landscape of the microbiome

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