# Albert Einstein's Firewall Paradox

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General relativity is fundamentally incompatible with quantum mechanics- they have been at odds with each other since its discovery in 1915- relativity breaks down at the subatomic level and vice versa. A conjecture by two physicists may finally reconcile relativity with quantum mechanics and put an end to the chain of inconsistencies began by Hawking’s information paradox.

Albert Einstein first discussed the concept of quantum entanglement in a 1935 paper co-written with his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. In the form of a thought experiment known as the EPR paradox, they demonstrated the incompleteness of quantum mechanics. The thought experiment argued that since the measuring of an entangled particle instantaneously influences

1). In 2012, a group of physicists demonstrated in a thought experiment that Susskind’s complementarity violated the rules of quantum entanglement. The AMPS firewall paradox, named after and proposed by Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski, and James Sully, is an inconsistency that occurs as a result of the incompatibility between Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum theory. The paradox involves a particle with multiple entanglements, and the firewall resulting from the breaking of an entanglement link, both of which violate the laws of quantum mechanics and general relativity,

The firewall would immediately incinerate anything encountering its threshold, which paradoxically violates the no drama principle.

To resolve the firewall paradox, one of three fundamental postulates of modern physics must be sacrificed: Einstein’s equivalence principle, which institutes the no drama principle; unitarity, which says that information cannot be lost; or locality, which says that an object can only be influenced directly.

A resolution to this paradox called ER=EPR (see fig. 3) was proposed by physicists Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena in 2013, in which ER refers to Einstein-Rosen bridges, also known as wormholes, and EPR refers to quantum entanglement as in the EPR paradox. The conjecture states that the particle still inside the black hole (see fig. 2) and the escaped particle are mutually connected through a wormhole (see fig. 3), thus preserving both laws as the particles are connected by a single link- in this sense, these two particles could be considered the same. Likewise, the interior of the black hole, and by extension its emitted Hawking radiation, is independently entangled by the wormholes as a macroscopic system with the distant admitted

Albert Einstein first discussed the concept of quantum entanglement in a 1935 paper co-written with his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. In the form of a thought experiment known as the EPR paradox, they demonstrated the incompleteness of quantum mechanics. The thought experiment argued that since the measuring of an entangled particle instantaneously influences

*…show more content…*1). In 2012, a group of physicists demonstrated in a thought experiment that Susskind’s complementarity violated the rules of quantum entanglement. The AMPS firewall paradox, named after and proposed by Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski, and James Sully, is an inconsistency that occurs as a result of the incompatibility between Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum theory. The paradox involves a particle with multiple entanglements, and the firewall resulting from the breaking of an entanglement link, both of which violate the laws of quantum mechanics and general relativity,

*…show more content…*The firewall would immediately incinerate anything encountering its threshold, which paradoxically violates the no drama principle.

To resolve the firewall paradox, one of three fundamental postulates of modern physics must be sacrificed: Einstein’s equivalence principle, which institutes the no drama principle; unitarity, which says that information cannot be lost; or locality, which says that an object can only be influenced directly.

A resolution to this paradox called ER=EPR (see fig. 3) was proposed by physicists Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena in 2013, in which ER refers to Einstein-Rosen bridges, also known as wormholes, and EPR refers to quantum entanglement as in the EPR paradox. The conjecture states that the particle still inside the black hole (see fig. 2) and the escaped particle are mutually connected through a wormhole (see fig. 3), thus preserving both laws as the particles are connected by a single link- in this sense, these two particles could be considered the same. Likewise, the interior of the black hole, and by extension its emitted Hawking radiation, is independently entangled by the wormholes as a macroscopic system with the distant admitted