Artificial Intelligence: Can Machines Think?
He created a testing method called the imitation game (Turing Test) which consists of a human interrogator alternately asking questions to a hidden human and a hidden computer in an attempt to discover which respondent is which based on the answers received (Muggleton 4). At the end of his paper he identifies three detailed strategies that he believed could result in a machine that could think and learn (Muggleton 4). The strategies were “AI by programming”, “AI by ab initio machine learning”, and “AI using logic, probabilities, learning, and background knowledge” (Muggleton 5). Due to the fact that Turing died in 1954, his three strategies were implemented by other computer scientists around the 1960s-1990s.
When discussing “AI by programming,” Turing noted that memory capacity of the machine is more important than processing speed because the parts in the machine are already fast enough. Turing believed that having a storage capacity of 107 binary digits would be optimal for his thinking machine (Muggleton 5). “AI by programming” was the primary model for artificial intelligence research in the 1960s-1980s. The three main components of the model that Turing researched were Reasoning, Physical perception, and Physical action (Muggleton …show more content…
While some people embrace AI technology for its sophistication and functionality, others are skeptical of it for different reasons. One example of the usefulness of artificial intelligence is that self-sufficient AI robots can be created and used for military purposes (Russell, Hauert and Altman 415-416). Although there is discussion about whether or not lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS) are ethical to use in a wartime setting, there is no doubt that they could be helpful. Instead of putting human lives in danger, robots that have perception, motor control, tactical decision-making, and long-term planning can be put into war and function as a soldier (Russell, Hauert and Altman 415). Manuela Veloso, professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University states that she wants people to embrace a robot-human world (Russell, Hauert and Altman 418). Veloso and her team of researchers created four CoBots (collaborative robots) that they share their laboratory with. These CoBots help move items between locations, escort visitors through the building, and can gather useful information like temperature, noise and light levels, Wi-Fi signal strength, etc. (Russell, Hauert and Altman 418). Veloso and her team “introduced the concept of ‘symbiotic autonomy’ to enable robots to ask for help from humans or from the internet”