Air Pollution Essay

5547 Words 23 Pages
Register to read the introduction… Pollution due to traffic constitute up to 90 – 95% of the ambient CO levels, 80 – 90% of NOx, hydrocarbon and particulate matter in the world, posing a serious threat to human health Savile, (1993). Research conducted a decade and half ago has shown that transportation sources in the USA were responsible for 77% of CO levels, 80 -90% of NOx, 36% of volatile organic compounds and 22% of particulate matter USEPA, (1993). Similarly, in UK the average concentration of NO2 was found to increase by 35% from 1986 to 1991 due to increase in vehicular emission CEC, (1992). On the global sense, Seneca and Tausig, (1994), Faucet and Sevingny (1998) have all arrived at the same conclusion that transportation is the major culprit of air pollution accounting for over 80% of total air pollutants. This is a clear indication that vehicle emissions are a major source of ambient air pollution and must be controlled if acceptable air quality is to be assured. In addition, there are numerous health problems associated with high concentration of these pollutants. For example NO2 is responsible for immune system impairment, exacerbation of asthma and chronic respiratory diseases: reduced lung function and cardiovascular disease Schwela, (2000). Particulates are dangerous and are linked as facilitators in the development of lung cancer and increase rate of …show more content…
The ratio of person to vehicle in China is 8 vehicles per 100 persons compared to 750 vehicles per 100 persons in the USA Faiz, (2000). Developing cities in Asia and Africa are at high risk to exposure of this traffic-related pollution. Research conducted in Ethiopia, Mozambique, Kenya and Republic of Benin, show that there is a high level of DNA damage in urban residents and higher prevalence of asthma in urban school children exposed to traffic pollution compared to rural children Autrup, (2006). The African continent may be highly heated if priority is not given in understanding the scale of this problem and its control. 1.2. Traffic Emissions in Nigerian Cities In Nigeria much attention is given on general industrial pollution and pollution in oil industries, with little reference on damage of pollution caused by mobile transportation sources of air pollution Faboye, (1997), Iyoha, (2000), and Magbabeola, (2001). The situation of increased pollution from mobile transportation source is on the increase in per capital vehicle ownership, thus resulting to high congestion on Nigeria city road and increase in the concentration of pollutants in the air, consequently, increasing health risk on human population. Studies conducted in Kaduna and Abuja cities show higher values of CO2 concentration in heavily congested areas: 1840ppm for Sambo Kaduna, 1780ppm for Stadium round-about, Kaduna, and 1530ppm for A.Y.A, Abuja, 1160ppm for …show more content…
Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality Standards in Nigeria
Table 1: Ambient air pollutants in Lagos and Niger Delta Area
Traffic Zone 72 – 950 34 – 131.6 20 – 250 10 – 250 50 – 200 Niger Delta Area Oil Communities 92.2 – 348.5 22.0 – 295.0 7.0 – 97.0 5.0 – 61.0 20 Cities 396.8 – 583.3 35 – 370 16 – 300 1.0 – 52 15 –

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