Four Types Of Deontological Ethics

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4. DEONTOLOGY
Deontology is duty based ethics that places value on the intentions of the individual and focuses on obligations, rules and duties. Adherence to this obligations and rules is regarded as ethically right.
TYPES OF DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS
Different types of deontological ethical theories are:
• Duty theories: an action is considered morally right if it is in accordance with some list of duties and obligations
• Contractarianism: an action is considered morally right if it in accordance with the rules that rational moral agents would agree to observe when entering into a social relationship for mutual benefit. This is also known as contractualism.
• Divine command: the common forms of deontological moral theories are those that comes
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Kant’s Categorical Imperative: this is the modern deontological ethics introduced by Immanuel Kant in late 18th century. Immanuel defined categorical imperative as any proposition that declares some action to be necessary, but hypothetical imperative would compel action in some circumstances. A categorical imperative would announce a complete, unconditional requirement that exerts its authority in all circumstance, both required and justified as an end in itself.
He states that the highest good must be both intrinsically good in itself and good without making the situation ever ethically worse. He concluded by saying that only one thing that is truly good, and it is good will chose out of a feeling of moral duty. The principle believed that the good must be obeyed in all situations and circumstances if our behavior is to observe moral laws. It is seen as unconditional obligation, irrespective of our will or desires, and irrespective of any consequences which might come out from the action. He equally states that when an action is not done with the motive of duty, it is without moral value and therefore it is meaningless.
The followings are the 3 significant formulation of this
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2. Pluralistic deontology: this is propounded by W.D Ross in 1877-1971. He states that there are seven prima facie duties that needs to be taken into consideration when deciding which duty should be acted upon.
A prima facie right: is the right of an individual has in any situation that is different from an absolute right, which is universal, inherent and cannot be overridden in any circumstances. But prima facie can become an absolute right, if there are no conflicting right.
7 prima facie duties are:
• Duty of beneficence: to help other people to increase their pleasure, improve their character and what is best in their interest.
• Duty of non-maleficence: to avoid causing harm to other people.
• Duty of justice: to ensure people get what they deserve.
• Duty of self-improvement: to improve oneself.
• Duty of reparation: to right someone if you have acted wrongly towards.
• Duty of gratitude: to benefit people who have benefited us.
• Duty of promise-keeping: to act according to explicit and implicit promises, including the implicit promise to tell the

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