Essay on Adolescence And Predominant Psychological Theories

2260 Words Sep 19th, 2016 10 Pages
This paper examines some of the various aspects of adolescence, including substance use and abuse, sexual behaviors, alienation, and body image, from the viewpoint of four predominant adolescent developmental theories. These theories are the “biological, the cognitive, the psychosexual and the social approaches” (Dolgin, 2011, p. 27). Issues of Adolescence and Predominant Psychological Theories
Bernstein, et al., succinctly state in their text Psychology, that “the biological approach to psychology assumes that behaviors and mental processes are largely shaped by biological processes” (Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, & Roy, 2012, p. 19). Thus biologists of this school of thought give great weight to the study of the ways in which heredity (via genes and evolutionary history), neurotransmitters, hormones and neural networks contribute to human behaviors (Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, & Roy, 2012). Dolgin (2011) further states that “These theorists downplay environmental influences and tend to believe that the adolescent experience is similar regardless of where someone is raised” (p. 32).
Underage substance use and substance abuse are significant problems facing adolescents today. The biological view of this issue focuses on a number of factors of a biological nature, including the relative immaturity of the areas of the cerebral cortex dealing with balancing risk and reward in adolescents (Steinberg, 2008). By virtue of this, adults are wise to expect…

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